Diabetes Watch Blog: From Medicineworld.org
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Medicineworld.org publishes a diabetes watch blog and this blog is run by JoAnn other bloggers. This diabetes watch blog brings you the latest in the field of diabetes. This includes personal stories, advances in diagnosis and treatment, and other observations about diabetes. Improving awareness about diabetes is an important mission of this group.
"Insulin disappears early and dramatically in Alzheimer's disease," senior researcher Suzanne M. de la Monte, a neuropathologist at Rhode Island Hospital and a professor of pathology at Brown University Medical School, said in a prepared statement.
"And many of the unexplained features of Alzheimer's, such as cell death and tangles in the brain, appear to be linked to abnormalities in insulin signaling. This demonstrates that the disease is most likely a neuroendocrine disorder, or another type of diabetes," she added.
The discovery that the brain produces insulin at all is a recent one, and de la Monte and his colleagues also found that brain insulin produced by patients with Alzheimer's disease tends to fall below normal levels.
Now her group has discovered that brain levels of insulin and its related cellular receptors fall precipitously during the early stages of Alzheimer's. Insulin levels continue to drop progressively as the disease becomes more severe thus adding to evidence that Alzheimer's might be a new form of diabetes, she said.
In addition, the Brown University team found that low levels of acetylcholine which is a hallmark of Alzheimer', are directly linked to this loss of insulin and insulin-like growth factor function in the brain.
The report appears in the November issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.
"In the most advanced stage of Alzheimer's, insulin receptors were nearly 80 percent lower than in a normal brain," de la Monte said.
In addition, the researchers found two abnormalities related to insulin in Alzheimer's. First, levels of insulin dropped as the disease progressed. Second, insulin and its related protein called insulin-related growth factor-I, lose the ability to bind to cell receptors. This creates a resistance to the insulin growth factors, causing the cells to malfunction and die.
These results are from a recent presentation at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
"We used ultrasound guidance to inject donor cells into the portal vein of diabetic patients, which is accessed through the skin," said co-author Saravanan Krishnamoorthy, M.D., radiology resident at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. "This is a safe method of cell transplantation that could potentially become a same-day procedure."
In type-1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. This typically results from the destruction of insulin-producing islet beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is necessary to metabolize sugar, which is the basic fuel that all cells need.
With this minimally invasive technique, donor islet cells are injected into diabetic patients so that the new, healthy islet cells can restore insulin production, essentially stopping the progression of the disease. The study included 13 patients with poorly controlled type-1 diabetes. Fifteen islet cell transplants were completed-two patients underwent two procedures to achieve correct needle placement.
"We used a steroid-free protocol to suppress the immune system, so that the body accepted the transplanted cells," Dr. Krishnamoorthy said. "We also developed a 'sandwich technique' to close the access site through the skin, where the islet cells are injected. The sandwich technique is so-called because of the layered applications of gelfoam and coil used to close the access site."
Patients with diabetes are at high risk of developing of cardiovascular events, and should be on preventative aspirin therapy. This is as per the current recommendations of American Diabetes Association and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
This survey, which was conducted by Harris Interactive in collaboration with the ACPM, was supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Bayer HealthCare, the makers of Bayer Aspirin.
Heart attack and stroke are the most life-threatening consequences of diabetes, occurring more than twice as often among people with diabetes than in those who do not have the disease, and accounting for approximately 65% of deaths in people with diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, a diagnosis of diabetes as an adult presents a similar level of coronary heart disease risk as already having suffered a heart attack.
"The survey findings suggest that insufficient numbers of Americans with diabetes are aware of the cardio-protective benefits of aspirin," commented George K. Anderson, MD, MPH, past president of the ACPM.
It's important to remember that aspirin is not appropriate for everyone, so be sure to talk to your doctor before you begin an aspirin regimen. If you are taking a prescription product for diabetes, it is especially important to talk to your doctor because aspirin can interfere with certain diabetes medications.
People who eat fish like salmon gathered from polluted water sources may predispose you to development of diabetes as per findings from a new study. Pollutant water may contain high levels of organo-chlorine pollutants, which may increase the risk of diabetes. The most common way to get this pollutant to your body is by consumption of fish like Salomon that had grown in such polluted water sources.
These findings are published in a recent issue of the journal Environmental Health. The study also states that a wide variety of pollutants may be present in such water sources. These may include polychlorinated biphenyls and insecticide DDT that may increase the risk of development of diabetes.
Lars Rylander and colleagues from the University of Lund, Sweden conducted this research about the pollutants and risk of development of type-2 diabetes. They studied the incidence of type 2 diabetes in196 fishermen and 184 fishermen's wives, and analyzed levels in their blood of the various pollutants. The study showed that 6% of men and 5% of women who took part in the study have diabetes. Those that were found to have type 2 diabetes have significantly higher blood levels of both pollutants compared to non-diabetics in the group of fisherman and fisherman's wives.
More information on Type-2 diabetes
A recent study in rats shows that the popular artificial sweetener aspartame can lead to a wide range of cancers. If this is true for human beings like you and I is still an open question. I know that of the 90 non-industry-sponsored studies evaluating the safety of Aspartame about, 83 (92%) identified one or more problems with aspartame.
Aspartame is found in many of the artificial sweetening products available in the market like Equal and is present in many other sugar-free products under the brand name NutraSweet. It is the second best-selling nonsugar sweetener in the world. Coke Zero is one product sweetened with aspartame.
With these findings researchers in Italy observed that rats exposed to varying doses of aspartame throughout their lives developed leukemias, lymphomas, and several other cancers in a dose-dependent manner.
They report that the product is a potential cancer-causing agent to humans even at levels that are less than half of what is considered safe by the U.S. government.
The study appears in the recent issue of the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
Industry states that the investigators did not follow the guidelines for this scientific study. They further noted that their own animal studies involving similar levels of aspartame exposure showed no link between the sweetener and an increase in cancers.
About 18.2 million Americans live with diabetes and only one third of these diabetic patients are aware that they have diabetes. Others may never know this until they develop some complications related to diabetes like diabetic retinopathy or kidney damage.
Diabetic retinopathy starts as proliferation of blood vessels inside the retina, and if it progresses to later stages it can lead to the contraction and detachment of the retina, which would result in blindness. The American Diabetes Association says that detection and treatment of diabetic eye disease can reduce the development of severe vision loss by 50-60 percent.
"Patients often do not present for eye exams until they have experienced a vision problem and symptoms can be difficult to reverse at that point," said Dr. Loren Azevedo. "Diabetic patients need to be especially vigilant about annual eye examinations as they are in a high-risk group to develop vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy." says Dr. Hai Tong, an optometrist with A to Z Eye Care in Arcata.
One of the early indicators of diabetes is varying levels of blurred vision resulting from a lens that shrinks and swells with blood sugar levels. An eye exam may result in a pair of prescription lenses, but blurred vision will return as the blood level changes.
If diagnosed early complications of diabetic retinopathy can be minimized. Many of the proliferating blood vessels can be treated with laser beams.
One of the best secrets of breastfeeding is that it is as healthy for mothers as for babies. It is believed to safeguard babies from developing diabetes. Longer a woman nurses her baby, lower is the risk of developing diabetes.
Dr. Alison Stuebe, the lead author of a new study and a researcher at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital has said that breastfeeding changes the body metabolism, which aids in keeping the levels of blood sugar stable and there is proven evidence for this fact.
Chances of developing type-2 diabetes are 15% less in women who breastfeed for at least one year in comparison to those who have never breastfed. According to researchers good lifestyle habits like exercise, diet and smoking does not affect the benefits conferred by breastfeeding.
Dr. Ruth Lawrence of the University of Rochester in New York, author of a medical textbook on breast-feeding said that according to earlier research it was found that breastfeeding reduces the women's risk of breast and ovarian cancer and osteoporosis. Now diabetes could also be added to that list.
Breastfeeding is also beneficial for the babies. So mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed babies for their mutual benefits.
In America a patient who is usually overweight comes in to the doctor's office with all the symptoms of obesity-linked type-2 diabetes. Many of these patients also have a rarer type-1 form of diabetes as well.
Dr. Francine Kaufman, past president of the American Diabetes Association and head of the Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology at Children's Hospital, Los Angeles calls this hybrid diabetes or double diabetes and a growing number of patients are being diagnosed with this hybrid. The phenomenon of "double diabetes" is increasing as per Dr. Kaufman.
The link between type-2 diabetes and obesity is well proven, but now the researchers are suggesting obesity that may also trigger late-onset of type-1 diabetes.
Kaufman said that the treatment for double diabetes might be more complicated than that provided to patients with type-1 or type-2 alone. Both insulin and pills may be needed for patients of double diabetes.
Of course, prevention remains the best answer to fighting this disease. As For parents, this means "trying to have your child keep to as close a healthy weight as possible, eating appropriate foods in appropriate quantities, and being active," Kaufman said.
Recently FDA had issued the manufactures, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. and Merck and Co Inc. an "approvable" letter but asking for more heart safety information before the agency can make a final decision. Company officials say that this additional information could take five years to obtain.
In a letter to the FDA sent last week, Public Citizen urged the agency to make sure the drug is safe before allowing its sale, especially since other diabetes drugs are already on the market.
"We question why a drug that an FDA medical officer has concluded causes dose-related edema, weight gain, and congestive heart failure needs to be approved for diabetic patients who are already at increased risk for cardiovascular adverse effects and who already have multiple drugs available to treat their conditions," the advocacy group wrote.
Since the FDA's initial decision, several studies have also called the pill's heart risks into question, they said.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a recent warning to those patients with diabetes of several glucose meters made by Abbott Diabetes. FDA warns that these glucose meters can give misleading readings. This misreading happens when the glucose meters are accidentally switched to give a person's blood sugar level in the foreign standard of units, millimoles per liter, instead of the U.S. standard of units, milligrams per deciliter. The glucose meter will then give a value which is far less than the actual blood glucose value and this may lead to un-necessary panic and anxiety.
"The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in industrialized countries is rapidly increasing, and diabetes is suspected to carry a particularly high risk for sudden cardiac death," Dr. Xavier Jouven, of Universite Paris-5, France, and colleagues wrote.
The researchers examined the association between blood sugar level, diabetes and the risk of sudden cardiac death among individuals enrolled in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound.
The study included 2,040 subjects who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between 1980 and 1994. They were compared with 3,800 control subjects, derived from a random sample of enrollees.
The researchers classified the subjects as having no diabetes, borderline diabetes, diabetes without disease of the small blood vessels, and diabetes with disease of the small blood vessels.
After accounting for potential contributing factors, the team found a progressively higher risk of sudden cardiac death associated with borderline diabetes (24 per cent), diabetes without disease of the small blood vessels (73 per cent), and diabetes with disease of the small blood vessels (266 per cent) compared with no diabetes.
High blood sugar levels can promote disease of the small blood vessels without causing symptoms, they note, which might contribute to sudden cardiac death risk.
STARLET represents a new generation of insulin pump. The product can be worn discreetly as a patch directly on the skin of a patient and will be used to provide 24 hour control of insulin delivery to people with insulin-dependent diabetes. This product is a smaller, lighter and cost-effective alternative to current insulin pump products, whilst providing the same high level of diabetes control.
The annual worldwide market for conventional insulin pump products is approximately 1.5 billion. There are an estimated 400,000 insulin pump users and their number is growing by 12 - 14% per annum. In the UK the number of insulin pump users has seen a dramatic increase with the release of new guidance in 2003 from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommending the funding of insulin pump therapy by the National Health Service.
David Urquhart, Managing Director, Medical House Products Limited, said: "STARLET represents an exciting opportunity for us to further expand our product portfolio, whilst re-affirming our commitment to the development of new technologies that assist in the safe and convenient delivery of injectable medications. STARLET will compliment our existing range of drug delivery systems and provide a further alternative to those patients who must inject insulin each day."
These results were consistent between case-control and cohort studies and between studies conducted in the United States and Europe. They found that the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer incidence did not differ by sex or by cancer subsite. Diabetes was also positively associated with colorectal cancer mortality, but that result varied among the studies included in the analysis. These findings are published in the recent issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Type-2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases diabetes. This disease affects nearly 17 million Americans and is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Even though 17 million Americans have type-2 diabetes only half of these people are aware that they have diabetes. The death rate in patients with diabetes may be up to 11 times higher than in persons without the disease. The occurrence of diabetes in persons 45 to 64 years of age is 7 percent, but the proportion increases significantly in persons 65 years of age or older. Type-2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes worldwide.
Diabetes Watch Blog: From Medicineworld.org
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