Lung Cancer Blog :from Medicineworld.org
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Lung cancer blog: Lung cancer blog is managed by Scott with the help of other bloggers. Through this blog Scott and his friends constantly remind the readers about the dangers of smoking. It's a never-ending struggle against this miserable disease with which a social stigma of smoking is associated.
Colon cancer blog: Colon cancer blog is run by Sue and other bloggers. Sue brings a personal touch to the colon cancer blog since her mother died of colon cancer few years ago. She writes about stories, research news and advances in treatment related to colon cancer.
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There are two basic types of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (previously known as oat cell lung cancer) comprises of about 20% of all cases of lung cancer. All other lung cancer types are collectively called non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer consists of a heterogeneous group of lung cancer with mainly three sub types: adeno carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Even though the non-small cell comprises of different cell types, they usually show a similar behavior and are mostly treated in a similar way. Following is a break up of sub-types of lung cancer. You may find detailed general information on lung cancer below.
Recent death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve are startling reminders to us about the disease and the risk of smoking. Perhaps most alarming is that 60 percent of new lung cancer cases are diagnosed in people who never smoked or who quit smoking even decades ago. Dr. Karen Kelly, from the University of Colorado.
"Lung cancer has generally been associated with the stigma of smoking, which has caused many patients to feel ostracized and potentially has contributed to the public's lack of awareness about this devastating disease."
Picture of TGF-B-receptor courtesy of Mayo clinic
"We've established for the first time that these important molecules are either missing or that their action is reduced in three-quarters of all cases of lung cancer," said lead researcher Professor Pran Datta. "When we restored the molecules in lung cancer cells in mice, they reduced the ability of the cells to grow as tumors," he wrote in the British Journal of Cancer.
Now that link between type 2 TGF-b receptors and lung cancer the task would be to find out how or why the key receptor molecules go missing as the disease develops, in order to find a way of treating it..
Most mammalian cells express three abundant high affinity receptors which can bind and be cross-linked to TGF-b: the type 1), type 2 , and the type 3 receptors. While TGF-b1 binds with high affinity to the type I, II and III receptors at the cell surface, TGF-b2 binds with high affinity only to the type III receptor while binding poorly to the majority of the type I and type II receptors.
These findings are from a new published in the latest issue of CHEST, the peer-reviewed journal of the American College of Chest Physicians.
"Surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer is standard treatment and is likely curative. Yet, fewer blacks than whites undergo surgery for the disease, leading to a higher mortality rate among blacks with lung cancer," said Bruno DiGiovine MD, FCCP, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI. "Identifying and addressing the underlying reason for this discrepancy in surgical rates may, ultimately, lead to greater rates of surgical acceptance and decreased mortality rates among blacks with lung cancer."
"Knowing blacks decline surgery at a higher rate than whites is the first step to decreasing lung cancer mortality among this population. We must now identify why so many blacks decline lung cancer surgery," said Dr. DiGiovine. "Prior research has shown that blacks may be misinformed about the risks of surgery, as they are more likely than whites to believe that lung cancer will spread if exposed to air during operation. This misinformation may contribute to the low rate of lung cancer surgery acceptance among blacks, however, more research is needed in this area."
A new study presented at 71st annual international scientific assembly of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), found that in patients receiving treatment for lung cancer, women had significantly better survival rates than men. However, in untreated patients, women also had a 21 percent decreased risk of death as compared with men, leading researchers to believe lung cancer in women has a different biologic behavior and natural history than in men.
"In patients with lung cancer receiving treatment, women have shown a better response to therapy, resulting in better survival rates," said Juan Wisnivesky, MD, MPH, FCCP, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY. "Yet, new data suggest that even in untreated patients, women with lung cancer still live longer than men, despite the presence of other medical conditions or gender differences in life expectancy. This suggests that the progression of lung cancer has a biological basis, with the disease being more aggressive in men than women."
Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine reviewed 18,967 cases of stage I and II non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 1999. These data comes from the analysis of these large number of patients.
"It is clear that gender plays a role in the survival rate of men and women," said W. Michael Alberts, MD, FCCP, President of the American College of Chest Physicians. "Physicians caring for patients with lung cancer should consider the inherent progression of lung cancer among men and women when deciding on a patient's course of treatment."
"Ultimately, this test could be administered in primary-care settings or dental offices. The procedure is simple enough that specimen collection could be done by patients themselves," lead researcher Dr. Bojana Turic, the director of clinical and regulatory affairs at Perceptronix, Inc., in Vancouver, explained in a prepared statement.
The findings were to be presented Monday in Montreal at CHEST 2005, the annual international scientific assembly of the American College of Chest Physicians.
"Previous research has shown that cell nuclear changes can extend a significant distance from the site of a malignancy," Turic explained. "We have already conducted a successful clinical trial for our sputum test for lung cancer. New data suggest that the effects of lung cancer can also be measured as far away as skin cells in the mouth."
In their test, Tutic and his team analyzed randomized cheek scrapings of 150 confirmed lung cancer patients and 990 patients at high risk for the disease. "A sufficient amount of cells can be collected by scraping the inside of the cheek with a small wooden spatula similar to a tongue depressor," Turic said.
According to the researchers, the cheek cell test could detect cancer two-thirds of the time and may have a false positive rate of 30 percent.
Several previous studies have suggested that cruciferous vegetables like cabbage, broccoli and sprouts, protected against lung cancer. However, these previous studies were not large enough draw any definite conclusion, the authors of the new research said.
"We found protective effects with at least weekly consumption of cruciferous vegetables," said Paul Brennan, lead author of a research letter that appeared in the latest issue of The Lancet. Brennan is head of the Genetic Epidemiology Group at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France.
The protective effect of cruciferous vegetables is related to their rich content of isothiocyanates, which have been demonstrated to have a chemopreventive effect against lung cancer.
This results are from a large study consisting of 2,141 people with lung cancer, comparing them with 2,168 healthy individuals in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Romania and Russia, where consumption of these vegetables has traditionally been high.
David Ettinger MD and colleagues from Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer at The John Hopkins University were expecting to see some improved results with the three-drug combination plus radiation compared to the standard two drug combination with radiation.
Antisoma has recently announced its preliminary findings from an ongoing phase II trial of AS1404 in lung cancer. AS1404 belongs to a class of drugs called vascular disrupting agents. These drugs selectively attack tumor blood vessels, giving them broad potential against solid cancers, which depend on their blood supply to survive and grow.
Dr Mark McKeage of the University of Auckland, New Zealand, one of the Principal Investigators in the study, said: "These early data are fascinating and very encouraging." Robin Breckenridge, Global Head, Pharma Partnering Operations at Roche said: "Vascular disrupting agents represent an interesting novel approach to cancer treatment."
Antisoma's CEO Glyn Edwards said: "Lung cancer is a terrible disease that affects a huge number of patients worldwide and there is a desperate need to improve on currently available therapies.
In addition to the lung cancer study, Antisoma is conducting two other phase II studies of AS1404, in prostate and ovarian cancers.
The study enrolled 51 patients to receive treatment with paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by radiation therapy with concurrent efaproxiral.
After two months of follow up, the disease progressed in two patients and remained stable in three patients. Seven patients were not evaluated for various reasons. Three patients achieved complete disappearance of the tumor and 34 patients achieved reduction of tumor size to at least 50 percent of the original size. This would amount to an overall response rate of 75 percent.
The researchers compared the survival of these patients to survival in RTOG-94-10, which enrolled patients with similar chrematistics and found that the median survival of 20.6 months observed in the current study was longer than 17.9 months as reported in RTOG-94-10.
The results of this trial should be interpreted with caution since this is small phase II study and selection bias may have influenced the treatment outcome. Results need to be confirmed in a larger randomized clinical trial.
Tobacco and marijuana smoke differ in a number of ways, one notable example is that marijuana smoke contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Nicotine increases the cancer-promoting effects of smoke, while THC reduces cancer promoting effects, Melamede explained.
THC and nicotine act on related cellular pathways, but despite this fact, they bind to different receptors to activate these pathways. Cells in the lungs and respiratory passages are lined with nicotine receptors but these cells don't appear to have THC receptors. This may explain why smoking marijuana has so far not been linked with lung cancer, a major cause of death from cigarette smoking.
Research has also shown that marijuana kills cancer cells and reduces tumor growth. This is, in part, because marijuana reduces the formation of blood vessels that nourish tumors.
This news in no way should be comforting for a marijuana smoker since the effects of marijuana are complex and sometimes contradictory. Many people may use marijuana and tobacco together, and the two drugs could interact in complex ways.
While some governments are reluctant to approve marijuana for medicinal use, the review noted that there's increasing evidence that marijuana can improve the lives of patients with a broad range of health problems, including insomnia, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.
The integrated strategy is to focus on three critical issues related to lung cancer. These critical strategies include more effective tobacco control, improving likelihood of cure for lung cancer by developing methods of earlier detection and improving treatment of pre-malignant lung lesions and lung cancer with development of new targeted therapies.
NCI has the following recommendations to achieve this goal by the year 2015.
More effective tobacco control:
Emphasis will be given to development and testing of promising therapies for nicotine addiction. Research would be targeted to explore the genetics of nicotine addiction focusing on gene-environment interaction.
Focus will be given to develop more effective proteomic and expression technologies on tissues and bio-specimen samples. Effort will be directed at studying markers expressed on malignant tissues.
Priorities will be given to development of new drugs and understanding patient's response to therapy. The team has suggested research on the early cancer and pre-cancer microenvironment.
Oct 15, 2005
We engage a never-ending daily struggle to understand and defeat the hidden mysteries of cancer. This is a long and laborious fight, but some moments stand out as grim reminders of the severity of the problem and ruthlessness of the enemy. We recently heard about the sad demise of Peter Jennings, who was the news anchor of ABC News for a long time.
Lung Cancer Blog :from Medicineworld.org
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