Prostate Cancer Blog: From Medicineworld.org
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As both measurements proved valuable, looking at the speed at which PSA increases may be more important than simply recording PSA levels, allowing better prediction of disease progression and likelihood of death after radical prostatectomy surgery.
"The level of PSA in the blood has less prognostic value than we previously thought, and we don't have another serum marker to help us," said Dr Michael Blute, Mayo Clinic urologist and lead investigator of the study. "It was important for us to find other ways to look at PSA data and translate that into information that will save lives, and I believe we have done that."
The study also found Zyflamend induces prostate cancer cells to self-destruct via a process called apoptosis.
Columbia researchers said their study suggests Zyflamend has the ability, in vitro, to reduce prostate cancer cell proliferation by as much as 78 percent and confirms Zyflamend has COX-1 and COX-2 anti-inflammatory effects, although its anti-cancer affects against prostate cancer were independent of COX-2 inhibition. That, said the scientists, supports the postulation that some prostate cancer cells are not affected by COX-2 inflammation.
These results were particularly surprising and show great promise in the fight against prostate cancer, said researcher Dr. Debra Bemis of the Columbia University Department of Urology. We hope that the magnitude of benefits shown in this research will be confirmed in the larger scale trial already in progress.
On the strength of the laboratory research, Columbia's department of urology has commenced a Phase 1 human clinical trial testing Zyflamend's ability to prevent prostate cancer in patients with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia -- a clinical precursor for prostate cancer.
The study is detailed in the journal Nutrition and Cancer
May be something has changed in the way Gleason scores are given today (Gleason scores are a measure of aggressive of the prostate cancer). These days it is hard to see a Gleason score of less than 6. Earlier it used to be between 2 and 5. May be the way in which the scores are allocated has changed. Allocating a high grade to an actually low-grade cancer creates a false impression of a decrease in the prostate cancer mortality.
An article published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute whose lead author is Peter C. Albertson, MD, Division of Urology; University of Connecticut at Farmington contradicts a true improvement in prostate cancer mortality.
Albertson and his collaborates calculated prostate cancer mortality rates, which showed an improvement in the mortality rate of 28 percent. They said that might be due to the reclassification of the scoring system and is a statistical artifact known as the Will Rogers phenomenon.
These days we can find more men undergoing prostate biopsy due to the accessibility of safe and effective biopsy techniques. Because of more aggressive screening prostate cancer is detected 10 to 15 years earlier than in the past. This trend of early diagnosis is called "zero time shift" or "lead time bias." Early diagnosis creates a false impression of longer survival without a real improvement in the overall survival.
Tony Blair, Michael Howard and Charles Kennedy, the leaders of the three main political parties have tied up together for the improvement in the cure of prostate cancer.
At the National Prostate Cancer Conference which is going to be held in London shortly, the "Audio Day Motion" recordings will be played. Invitation has also been forwarded to other MPs and lords for adding their voice to the recordings.
Prostate cancer is supposed to be UK's biggest killer of men and all the participants have in common a weakness to the disease.
It has been estimated that 30,000 men are affected by prostate cancer in a year out of which one third die from it.
The Prostate Cancer Charter for Action was formed in the year 2003. This Charter for Action is made up of 22 charities and organisations which includes the Prostate Cancer Charity and Cancer Research UK.
Sandy Tyndale-Biscoe, a patient of prostate cancer spoke for the Prostate Cancer Charter for Action and complimented the politicians who are putting their efforts to improve the services.
He also said that there is a long way to go as many men suffering from prostate cancer still get a poor deal. And since there is a prospect to change this historically, tackling prostate cancer should be the main concern for us.
Photo: courtesy of University of Michigan and Scott Tomlins, U-M Medical SchoolScientists at the University of Michigan Medical School, in collaboration with researchers at Harvard's Brigham and Women's Hospital, have discovered a recurring pattern of scrambled chromosomes and abnormal gene activity that occurs only in prostate cancer.
In a paper being published in the recent issue of Science, the research team indicates that these chromosomal rearrangements induce specific genes to merge, creating what scientists call a fused gene. U-M researchers detected the unique molecular signature of these fused genes in the majority of prostate cancer tissue samples they analyzed, but found no evidence of gene fusion in benign prostate tissue or in prostate tissue with non-cancerous changes.
"The data in our study provides tantalizing evidence that gene fusion is the causative agent - the initiating event - in prostate cancer," says Arul M. Chinnaiyan, M.D., Ph.D., the S.P. Hicks Collegiate Professor of Pathology in the U-M Medical School, who directed the study. "It's what drives the aberrant over-expression of cancer-causing genes and is the first step in the progression of tissue changes leading to prostate cancer."
Because this particular gene fusion occurs only in prostate cancer, a diagnostic test to detect, in blood or urine, the fused genes or their protein products would be specific for prostate cancer and far more accurate than current screening tests, according to Chinnaiyan. And if scientists could find a way to block the gene, it could be the basis for a new, effective treatment for prostate cancer.
"This is amazing," says Michael Heinrich, a professor at the Oregon Health and Science University Cancer Institute, who was not involved in the study. "This is the Rosetta Stone of prostate cancer. Cracking the code lets you read the whole library. The implications of this are huge in a lot of different ways."
These research findings were published in the recent issue of the journal Science. This study may form a foundation for further cancer research as per one of the study's authors, Mark Rubin, chief of urologic pathology at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston.
This finding is revolutionary in the fact that until now researchers were thinking that prostate cancer is the result of lots of random genetic mutations. This study, however, suggests for the first time that prostate cancer begins after specific genes fuse, forming a complex gene promoting growth of prostate cancer. This merged gene was detectable in nearly 80% of 29 prostate cancer samples, says Arul Chinnaiyan, a professor at the University of Michigan Medical School who directed the study. None of the 50 samples of non-cancerous tissue had the genes, he says.
This discovery may allow doctors to begin to divide prostate cancer - which is now treated as a single disease - into different types which could lead to more targeted therapies based on the genetic abnormalities.
A new study found that patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who had regularly undergone the yearly blood test had a less aggressive form of the disease at diagnosis - translating into a threefold reduction in the likelihood of death when compared with patients who had skipped the screening.
"A simple blood test called PSA may decrease deaths from prostate cancer because it appears to discover prostate cancers at a more curable time," said study author Dr. Jason Efstathiou, of the department of radiation oncology at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, in Boston.
The study of Efstathiou and his team was presented recently at the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology's meeting in Denver, mentioning that men who had a history of PSA testing were found to have had less aggressive cancer at the time of their diagnosis.
Dr. Durado Brooks, director of prostate and colorectal cancers with the American Cancer Society stated that "It's not really surprising that men who were detected by screening had less aggressive tumors, lower-risk disease, and earlier-stage cancer".
There are many factors that make robotics an exceptionally valuable tool in the operating room during prostate surgery, for both the patient and surgeon. "Perhaps two of the most-feared possible long-term effects of a radical prostatectomy are erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence," says Dr. Lee. "My specially-trained team and I have discovered that by using the robotic technique there is greater nerve sparing, which provides patients with the best chance for maintaining potency and continence."
Robotic technology offers a number of advantages during surgery. For instance, the robotic "arms" filter even minute tremors of the human hand so to provide steadiness. The robot's camera also provides a three-dimensional, stereoscopic image of the body's interior, as opposed to a two-dimensional image on a flat screen. This improved perspective enables depth perception that sharpens the visualization of the prostate and the network of nerves and tissue surrounding it. Additionally, by scaling down the motion of the robotic instruments, the surgeon can perform extremely precise, intricate movements during the procedure. For example, if the surgeon's hand moves five centimeters, he/she can scale the robotic hand to move only one centimeter.
Robotic technology also offers a number of advantages after surgery. Because laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and no large incisions are involved, robotic-assisted surgery provides numerous benefits for prostate cancer patients, including: less pain and scarring, diminished blood loss, a shorter hospital stay and reduced recovery period for a quicker return to daily activities.
Khanh H. Nguyen, M.D., lead author of the Fox Chase study and a resident in the radiation oncology department at Fox Chase said that men with type II diabetes didn't have a significantly different initial profile for their prostate cancer than the men without diabetes. The study did not detect significant differences in the initial PSA, Gleason score, or T-stage between the men with and without diabetes. Men with type II diabetes did not have significantly different treatment outcomes, said Nguyen.
Nguyen, now a radiation oncologist at the University of Tennessee Medical Center in Knoxville, Tenn., concluded, "The degree of hyperinsulinemia in type II diabetes can vary considerably and may obscure the true impact of insulin on the natural history of prostate cancer. "However, type II diabetes conferred a significantly higher overall mortality. Aggressive management of diabetes with diet, exercise, and medications may improve the survival of cancer patients."
Oct 16, 2005
The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum in male. The tube that carries urine runs through the prostate. The prostate contains cells that make some of the seminal fluid. This fluid protects and nourishes the sperm. Prostate cancer usually starts in the gland cells of the prostate. This kind of cancer is known as adenocarcinoma. Prostate cancer is usually a slow disease, but sometimes it can grow fast and spread quickly to other organs.
Prostate Cancer Blog: From Medicineworld.org
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