Blocking Human HIV TransmissionsAs primates evolved 7 million years ago, the more advanced species stopped making a protein that University of Central Florida scientists believe can effectively block the HIV-1 virus from entering and infecting blood cells.
HIV-1 often mutates quickly to overcome antiviral compounds designed to prevent infections. But a research team led by Associate Professor Alexander Cole of UCF's Burnett College of Biomedical Sciences has demonstrated........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 8/9/2006 11:21:57 PM)
High Blood Sugar May Cause Cognitive ImpairmentA four-year study of elderly women has observed that chronically elevated blood sugar is linked to an increased risk of developing either mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia.
The study was the first to investigate the association over time between glycosylated hemoglobin - a long-term measure of blood sugar - and the risk of cognitive difficulties, and the first to investigate that association in people without diabetes. It appears........Go to the Diabetes-watch-blog (Added on 8/9/2006 11:18:19 PM)
Antioxidants against tick-borne illnessFor hikers, campers and others who enjoy the outdoors, summer can bring concerns about tick bites and related illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Scientists are investigating the role that antioxidants -- alpha-lipoic acid and potentially others like green tea and vitamins C and E, for example might play in preventing or treating the deadly rickettsia bacteria.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, part of........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 8/9/2006 10:16:21 PM)
Social Stresses OverlookedWhen thinking about the well-being of elderly adults, most people focus on medical care, but mental health care is a growing, pressing concern for elderly adults and their families. "At least one in five elderly adults suffer from a mental disorder and experts in geriatric mental health anticipate an 'unprecedented explosion' of elderly adults with disabling mental disorder," says Enola K. Proctor, Ph.D., a mental health care expert and........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 9:59:20 PM)
Brain's Visual Area: How Behavior Is OrganizedA brain region that focuses on vision also receives signals that may help configure the operation of the brain, neuroresearchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report.
If the brain is thought of as an army, the new signals may give researchers a unique opportunity to trace how messages from the high command reach all the way down to individual soldiers in a particular platoon and affect their activities.
That's........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 8:47:53 PM)
High Blood Pressure Induces Low Fat Metabolism"The heart is the single most energy-consuming organ per weight in the body," says Lisa de las Fuentes, M.D.
Under some conditions this energy-hungry organ is prone to defects in its energy metabolism that contribute to heart disease, as per research published in a recent issue of the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology by de las Fuentes and his colleagues at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
Earlier research led by de las........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 8/8/2006 8:37:10 PM)
New Learning StrategyCentral to being human is the ability to adapt: We learn from our mistakes. Prior theories of learning have assumed that the size of learning naturally scales with the size of the mistake. But now biomedical engineers at Washington University in St. Louis have shown that people can use alternative strategies: Learning does not necessarily scale proportionally with error.
In so doing, Kurt Thoroughman, Ph.D., assistant professor of biomedical........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 12:18:07 AM)
Surprise Finding For Stretched DNAMost of us are familiar with the winding staircase image of DNA, the repository of a biological cell's genetic information. But few of us realize just how tightly that famous double helix is wound. Stretched to its full length, a single molecule of human DNA extends more than three feet, but, when wound up inside the nucleus of a cell, that same molecule measures about one millionth of an inch across. Biologists have long believed that as a........Go to the Research news blog (Added on 8/7/2006 11:39:44 PM)
Classification of DietsPeople have come to identify some essential factors which influence the general state of health and quality of life. These factors include eating, working, exercising, resting and spiritual activity closely associated with one's mental state.
Eating crucially influences the state of health. It provides the body with essential vital substances which are subsequently converted into the necessary forms of energy for life. For this reason,........Go to the Weight watcher's blog (Added on 8/7/2006 3:38:19 PM)
Miscarriage Associated With AgeIn a study conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the New York Psychiatric Institute scientists observed that increasing paternal age is significantly linked to increased rates of spontaneous abortion, a pregnancy loss occurring before twenty weeks of gestation. Results indicate that as the male partner ages there is a steady increase in rate of miscarriage. Women with partners aged 35 or older had nearly three........Go to the OBGYN news blog (Added on 8/4/2006 12:24:38 AM)
Links between DNA damage and breast cancerScientists from the Pacific Northwest Research Institute (PNRI) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have uncovered a pattern of DNA damage in connective tissues in the human breast that could shed light on the early stages of breast cancer and possibly serve as an early warning of a heightened risk of cancer.
In the United States, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Breast........Go to the Breast-cancer-blog (Added on 8/4/2006 12:05:29 AM)
Protector Of DNA, Enemy Of TumorsA single gene plays a pivotal role launching two DNA damage detection and repair pathways in the human genome, suggesting that it functions as a previously unidentified tumor suppressor gene, scientists at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in Cancer Cell.
The advance online publication also reports that the gene - called BRIT1 - is under-expressed in human ovarian, breast and prostate cancer cell lines.
Defects........Go to the Cancer-blog (Added on 8/3/2006 11:49:28 PM)
CT Images Faster Than Traditional ScannersResearchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a new method to create computed tomography (CT) images using carbon nanotube x-rays that works much faster than traditional scanners and uses less peak power.
The work is another step toward developing scanners for medical imaging and homeland security that are smaller, faster, and less expensive to operate, said Dr. Otto Zhou, Lyle Jones Distinguished Professor of........Go to the Health news blog (Added on 8/2/2006 11:39:17 PM)
Mapping System For Skin CellsGlobal-positioning system aficionados know that it's possible to precisely define any location in the world with just three geographic coordinates: latitude, longitude and altitude. Now researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have discovered that specialized skin cells use a similar mapping system to identify where they belong in the body and how to act once they arrive.
These cellular cornerstones direct embryonic........Go to the Skin news blog (Added on 8/2/2006 11:33:07 PM)
Basis For Perceptual LearningThe artist's trained eye can detect distinctions others can't; musicians pick up subtle changes in tone lost on the nonmusical. Brain scientists call these abilities perceptual learning.
Following up on an accidental finding, MIT scientists at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory and his colleagues have uncovered a mechanism for this phenomenon. The study will appear in the Aug. 3 issue of Neuron.
The original idea was to look at........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 8/2/2006 9:24:27 PM)
Evolution At The Tips Of ChromosomesIn terms of their telomeres, mice are more complicated than humans. That's the finding from a recent Rockefeller University study, which shows that mice have two proteins working together to do the job of a single protein in human cells. The findings, published recently in Cell, suggest that the protein complex that protects chromosome ends may have evolved far more rapidly than previously believed.
Acting as caps on the ends of each........Go to the Research news blog (Added on 8/1/2006 11:41:53 PM)
How Kidneys Retain ProteinsNew research may finally settle a decades-old debate about how the kidney keeps valuable blood proteins from harmfully slipping into the urine, a serious health symptom that often precedes kidney failure.
In genetically modified mice, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis captured images of a defective version of a kidney structure leaking a substance from the blood into the urine. The images suggest that the........Go to the Kidney watch blog (Added on 8/1/2006 9:25:42 PM)
Reduce Prostate Cancer Growth RateUCLA scientists observed that altering the fatty acid ratio found in the typical Western diet to include more omega-3 fatty acids and decrease the amount of omega-6 fatty acids may reduce prostate cancer tumor growth rates and PSA levels.
Reported in the Aug. 1 issue of the journal Clinical Cancer Research, this initial animal-model study is one of the first to show the impact of diet on lowering an inflammatory response known to promote........Go to the Prostate-cancer-blog (Added on 8/1/2006 7:02:14 AM)
No Cancer Without Cell WallsCancer cells, like houses, need building materials for their walls. And as with a house, the cell wall needs to be built at just the right moment to protect and allow the construction of internal components. A team from the Uppsala Branch of the global Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) has not only shown how the cell gets this timing right, but has also conducted proof-of-principle studies that indicate taking away the cell's bricks........Go to the Cancer-blog (Added on 8/1/2006 6:58:19 AM)
Higher Blood Pressure Associated with Decline in Walking AbilityDecline in lower limb function is common in older people, and worsening gait is linked to increased risk of dementia and death. However, factors contributing to gait difficulties in older persons are not well understood. A study by scientists at Rush University Medical Center suggests that higher blood pressure may be one factor linked to a decline in walking ability in later life. The research, by Dr. Raj Shah and his colleagues at the Rush........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 8/1/2006 6:48:43 AM)
Assessment Of Aggressive Boys' NeedsA decision support system, in form of a checklist with 20 risk- and need factors, complements clinical evaluation of boys between the ages of six and twelve with behavioural problems, as per new research from Karolinska Institutet.
Prolonged aggressive and disruptive behaviour in childhood is a strong risk marker for criminality and mental health problems in adulthood. Early identification of boys with increased risk of problems in the........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 8/9/2006 11:39:42 PM)
Behaviors That Can Lead To Poor HealthAdolescents who feel dissatisfied with their bodies are at higher risk for future binge eating, smoking, poor eating, and decreased physical activity, as per new research from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health.
A study reported in the August 2006 issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health found lower levels of body satisfaction among teenagers can predict the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, which can lead to........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 8/9/2006 10:27:35 PM)
Transcendental Meditation And PainTwelve healthy long-term meditators who had been practicing Transcendental Meditation for 30 years showed a 40-50% lower brain response to pain in comparison to 12 healthy controls, reported by a latest NeuroReport journal article, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Vol.17 No.12; 21 August 2006:1359-1363). Further, when the 12 controls then learned and practiced Transcendental Meditation for 5 months, their brain responses to pain also........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 8/9/2006 7:06:55 AM)
Teamwork: Where The Weak Help The StrongGroup work is the name of the game in a number of companies. The thinking is that workers will learn more and help each other when they are put into groups composed of people with a variety of expertise. But does this always happen? Some recent research suggests that it may not. at least not always.
"In order to understand how things happen in groups, you need to be aware of the group's hierarchy of status and influence," said Stuart........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 9:55:13 PM)
Exploring Alzheimer's CausesSome people live to be 100 without falling victim to Alzheimer's disease. Li-Huei Tsai, who joined MIT this spring as Picower Professor of Neuroscience, wants to know why.
Amyloid beta or Abeta (a protein fragment that accumulates in the brains of Alzheimer's patients) is a telltale sign of the disease, which affects 4 million Americans, most over age 65. Normally, the body manages to break down and eliminate these fragments, but in the........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 9:36:50 PM)
Nutrition's Role In Genes And Birth DefectsExpectant mothers may someday get a personalized menu of foods to eat during pregnancy to complement their genetic makeup as a result of new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
Scientists used transparent fish embryos to develop a way to discover how genes and diet interact to cause birth defects.
"By the time most women know they are pregnant, the development of the fetus' organs is essentially complete,"........Go to the OBGYN news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 8:42:21 PM)
more effective smoking cessationResults of a new imaging study, supported in part by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institutes of Health, show that the nicotine received in just a few puffs of a cigarette can exert a force powerful enough to drive an individual to continue smoking. Scientists observed that the amount of nicotine contained in just one puff of a cigarette can occupy about 30 percent of the brain's most common type of nicotine receptors,........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 8/8/2006 12:11:50 AM)
Best Memorization StrategiesExploring exactly why some individuals' memory skills are better than others has led researchers at Washington University in St. Louis to study the brain basis of learning strategies that healthy young adults select to help them memorize a series of objects. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the researchers uncovered brain regions specifically correlated with the diverse strategies that subjects adopt.
Brenda Kirchhoff,........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 8/7/2006 11:58:13 PM)
Simple Reassurance: Does It Work?The humanistic principles of the medical profession are nicely condensed in Oliver Wendell Holmes's old maxim stating that the key role of the physician is “to comfort always.” Thus, beyond the specificity of diagnoses and the effectiveness of treatments, the traditional practice of medicine gave high importance to bedside manner and interpersonal issues.
In contrast, 21st century medicine, with its reliance on technology and the changes in........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 8/6/2006 11:23:59 AM)
Reversing MalnutritionSwollen bellies, orange hair, listlessness and dull eyes - these are the traits of child malnutrition in Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and where roughly one of every three children is chronically malnourished.
To try to change that statistic, Patricia A. Wolff, M.D., associate clinical professor of pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, founded Meds & Food for Kids (MFK) in 2004, after she........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 8/6/2006 12:29:49 AM)
Race Affects Type 2 Diabetes TreatmentAfrican Americans may be less likely than whites to take their medicine for Type 2 diabetes as it is prescribed, a new study suggests.
The scientists observed that adherence rates were as much as 12 percent lower among black people when in comparison to whites.
"That's an unacceptable difference, especially because African Americans tend to have higher rates of diabetes and disease-related complications," said Rajesh Balkrishnan, a........Go to the Diabetes-watch-blog (Added on 8/3/2006 11:58:20 PM)
Key Fat And Cholesterol Cell RegulatorBoston, MA -- Scientists at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital have identified how a molecular switch regulates fat and cholesterol production, a step that may help advance therapys for metabolic syndrome, the constellation of diseases that includes high cholesterol, obesity, type II diabetes, and high blood pressure. The study is now reported in the online version of the scientific journal Nature and will appear in the........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 8/2/2006 11:53:35 PM)
Easy Route From Nose To BrainIn a continuing effort to find out if the tiniest airborne particles pose a health risk, University of Rochester Medical Center researchers showed that when rats breathe in nano-sized materials they follow a rapid and efficient pathway from the nasal cavity to several regions of the brain, as per a research studyin the recent issue of Environmental Health Perspectives.
Scientists also saw changes in gene expression that could signal........Go to the ENT news blog (Added on 8/2/2006 11:43:39 PM)
First Treatment For Drug-resistant HIVDoctors have their first FDA-approved tool to treat drug-resistant HIV thanks to a new molecule created by a Purdue University researcher.
"There are a number of therapys for AIDS on the market, but none are able to combat drug resistance," said Arun Ghosh (pronounced A-rune GO-sh), a professor with a dual appointment in the departments of chemistry and medicinal chemistry and molecular pharmacology. "This is the first therapy that is........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 8/2/2006 11:29:46 PM)
Uterine Cancer May Yield Clues To GeneticsA new study suggests that women with endometrial cancer should be screened for inherited mutations that could lead to a high risk of several other cancers.
The study showed that 1.8 percent, or about one in 50, of newly diagnosed endometrial cancer patients have mutations for Lynch syndrome, an inherited condition also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, or HNPCC.
People with Lynch syndrome mutations are at high risk for colon,........Go to the Uterine cancer blog (Added on 8/2/2006 11:03:55 PM)
Confusion, Not StressEven though they are trained in CPR, people hesitate to take action when an emergency unfolds in front of them. But the cause, a study has observed, is more likely to be confusion than stress.
A study conducted by several scientists surveyed 1,243 lay people trained in CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) who took part in a clinical trial. Most of them said they experienced low stress levels when faced with responding to a person in medical........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 8/1/2006 11:27:01 PM)
Emphysema Patients Might Benefit From SurgeryThe latest results from the landmark National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) confirm and extend earlier findings that selected patients with advanced emphysema predominately in the upper area of the lung may benefit from surgery and the benefits are still apparent with two more years of follow-up. The newly published findings from the largest study of bilateral lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) to treat severe emphysema also confirm that........Go to the Lung news blog (Added on 8/1/2006 11:04:29 PM)
Study Frames Depression Treatment PuzzleReported in the August 2006 edition of the American Journal of Psychiatry, the study used electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements to demonstrate an association between eventual clinical outcome and regional changes in brain activity during a placebo lead-in phase previous to antidepressant therapy.
The findings suggest that factors such as patient beliefs and expectations, doctor-patient relationships, or therapy history help complete the........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 8/1/2006 7:06:53 AM)
Curry And Onions May Prevent Colon CancerA small but informative clinical trial by Johns Hopkins researchers shows that a pill combining chemicals found in turmeric, a spice used in curries, and onions reduces both the size and number of premalignant lesions in the human intestinal tract.
In the study, reported in the recent issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, five patients with an inherited form of premalignant polyps in the lower bowel known as familial adenomatous........Go to the Colon-cancer-blog (Added on 8/1/2006 6:53:23 AM)
Human Cytomegalovirus VaccineEach year, about 40,000 children are born infected with human cytomegalovirus, or CMV, and about 8,000 of these children suffer permanent disabilities due to the virus almost one an hour. These disabilities can include hearing loss, vision loss, mental disability, a lack of coordination, and seizures. As per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CMV is as common a cause of serious disability as Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome,........Go to the Pediatric news blog (Added on 8/1/2006 6:42:34 AM)