Infants understand social dominanceocial DominanceNew research from the University of Copenhagen and Harvard University has observed that infants less than one year old understand social dominance and use relative size to predict who will prevail when two individuals' goals conflict. The findings are presented this week in the journal Science.
Lotte Thomsen, assistant professor at the University of Copenhagen's Department of Psychology and research fellow in Harvard's........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 1/28/2011 7:28:29 AM)
To better predict breast cancer outcomesScientists from McGill University's Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Research Centre (GCRC), the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC), the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School have discovered a gene signature that can accurately predict which patients with breast cancer are at risk of relapse, thereby sparing those who are not from the burdens linked to unnecessary therapy.
For years,........Go to the Breast-cancer-blog (Added on 1/28/2011 7:14:04 AM)
Retired NFL players misuse painkillersRetired NFL players use painkillers at a much higher rate than the rest of us, as per new research conducted by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
The scientists say the brutal collisions and bone-jarring injuries linked to football often cause long-term pain, which contributes to continued use and abuse of painkilling medications.
The study is published online in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/28/2011 7:01:52 AM)
Hot flushes reduce breast cancer riskWomen who have experienced hot flushes and other symptoms of menopause may have a 50 percent lower risk of developing the most common forms of breast cancer than postmenopausal women who have never had such symptoms, as per a recent study by scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.
The results of the first study to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer risk are available online ahead of the........Go to the Breast-cancer-blog (Added on 1/26/2011 6:57:56 AM)
Fear Is Quickly Learned During InfancyThere's a reason why Hollywood makes movies like Arachnophobia and Snakes on a Plane: Most people are afraid of spiders and snakes. A new paper published in Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, reviews research with infants and toddlers and finds that we aren't born afraid of spiders and snakes, but we can learn these fears very quickly.
One theory about why we fear spiders and........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 1/25/2011 8:00:27 AM)
Practicing retrieval is best tool for learningThe time students invest in rereading or reviewing their notes would be better spent practicing retrieval to ensure better learning, as per new research from Purdue University.
"We continue to show that practicing retrieval, or testing yourself, is a powerful, robust tool for learning," said Jeffrey D. Karpicke (pronounced CAR-picky), an assistant professor of psychological sciences who studies learning and memory. "Our new research shows........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 1/25/2011 7:41:35 AM)
'Engineered organ' model for breast cancer researchPurdue University scientists have reproduced portions of the female breast in a tiny slide-sized model dubbed "breast on-a-chip" that will be used to test nanomedical approaches for the detection and therapy of breast cancer.
The model mimics the branching mammary duct system, where most breast cancers begin, and will serve as an "engineered organ" to study the use of nanoparticles to detect and target tumor cells within the ducts.
Sophie........Go to the Breast-cancer-blog (Added on 1/25/2011 7:24:16 AM)
Defense mechanism against bacteriaUnder standard laboratory conditions, the human beta-defensin 1 (hBD-1), a human antibiotic naturally produced in the body, had always shown only little activity against microbes. Nevertheless the human body produces it in remarkable quantities. The solution to the puzzle was the investigation process itself, as the research group led by Dr. Jan Wehkamp at the Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch Institute for Clinical Pharmacology of the........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 1/22/2011 6:32:02 AM)
Meditation changes brain structure Participating in an 8-week mindfulness meditation program appears to make measurable changes in brain regions linked to memory, sense of self, empathy and stress. In a study that will appear in the January 30 issue of Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, a team led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) scientists report the results of their study, the first to document meditation-produced changes over time in the brain's grey matter.
........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 1/21/2011 10:32:47 PM)
Binge drinking: Too prevalent and hazardousBinge drinking, an activity that a number of young people engage in, has associated adverse health risks and we need to do a better job of controlling overall alcohol usage, states an editorial in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) (pre-embargo link only) http://www.cmaj.ca/embargo/cmaj110029.pdf.
"Given the a number of stakeholders involved in the sale and consumption of alcohol, we need a national strategy for controlling overall........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:52:05 AM)
Follow-up program helps detect melanoma earlierA follow-up program for patients at high risk of developing skin cancer may be linked to the detection of melanomas at early stages and with good prognosis, as per a report posted online today that will appear in the May print issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.
Efforts to improve melanoma prognosis have focused on identifying and closely monitoring individuals at high risk, as per background information in........Go to the Skin news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:27:41 AM)
Heart failure patients admitted to general wardsHeart failure patients admitted to general wards are twice as likely to die as those admitted to cardiology wards, shows a national audit of the therapy of the condition, published online in the journal Heart
Women fared worse than men when it comes to appropriate investigations and therapy, the findings suggest, eventhough death rates were similar.
In 2006/7, heart failure accounted for more than a quarter of a million hospital deaths........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:24:15 AM)
Don't reducing diet early in pregnancy Eating less during early pregnancy impaired fetal brain development in a nonhuman primate model, scientists from The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio reported today.
The scientists found decreased formation of cell-to-cell connections, cell division and amounts of growth factors in the fetuses of mothers fed a reduced diet during the first half of pregnancy. "This is a critical time window when a number of of the........Go to the OBGYN news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:20:54 AM)
Pollution damage to human airwaysScientists from Duke University Medical Center have identified how nanoparticles from diesel exhaust damage lung airway cells, a finding that could lead to new therapies for people susceptible to airway disease.
The researchers also discovered that the severity of the injury depends on the genetic make-up of the affected individual.
"We gained insight into why some people can remain relatively healthy in polluted areas and why others........Go to the Lung news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:16:07 AM)
Suicide risk greater for people living at higher elevationsTwenty years of mortality data from counties across the United States led to the striking discovery that living at higher altitudes appears to be a risk factor for suicide, as per a provocative study published online ahead of print in High Altitude Medicine & Biology, a peer-evaluated journal published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. The article is available free online. (www.liebertpub.com/ham).
Barry Brenner, MD, PhD, and David Cheng, MD,........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 10:08:51 PM)
Reduction in salt consumption recommendedThe American Heart Association today issued a call to action for the public, health professionals, the food industry and the government to intensify efforts to reduce the amount of sodium (salt) Americans consume daily.
In an advisory, published in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association, the association sets out the science behind the American Heart Association's recommendation for the general population, which is to consume........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 1/16/2011 9:46:31 PM)
Development of anti-HIV neutralizing antibodiesNew findings are bringing researchers closer to an effective HIV vaccine. Scientists from Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (Seattle BioMed), Vanderbilt University and the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard report findings showing new evidence about broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies, which block HIV infection. Details are published January 13 in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens
As per author Leo Stamatatos, Ph.D.,........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 1/16/2011 9:28:53 PM)
Berries may reduce high blood pressureHypertension - or high blood pressure - is a main cardiovascular diseases worldwide. It leads to stroke and heart disease and costs more than $300 billion each year. Around a quarter of the adult population is affected globally - including 10 million people in the UK and one in three US adults.
Published next month in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the new findings show that bioactive compounds in blueberries called anthocyanins........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 9:12:02 PM)
Smoking causes genetic damage within minutes In research described as "a stark warning" to those tempted to start smoking, researchers are reporting that cigarette smoke begins to cause genetic damage within minutes � not years � after inhalation into the lungs.
Their report, the first human study to detail the way certain substances in tobacco cause DNA damage associated with cancer, appears in Chemical Research in Toxicology, one of 38 peer-evaluated scientific journals published by........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 8:57:24 PM)
MicroRNA suppresses prostate cancer stem cellsA small slice of RNA inhibits prostate cancer metastasis by suppressing a surface protein usually found on prostate cancer stem cells. A research team led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported today in an advance online publication at Nature Medicine
"Our findings are the first to profile a microRNA expression pattern in prostate cancer stem cells and also establish a strong rationale for developing the........Go to the Prostate-cancer-blog (Added on 1/16/2011 8:37:04 PM)
Stem cells to repair a child's heartVisionaries in the field of cardiac therapeutics have long looked to the future when a damaged heart could be rebuilt or repaired by using one's own heart cells. A study reported in the recent issue of Circulation, a scientific journal of the American Heart Association, shows that heart stem cells from children with congenital heart disease were able to rebuild the damaged heart in the laboratory.
Sunjay Kaushal, MD, PhD, surgeon in the........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 1/28/2011 7:23:07 AM)
Weighing the Costs of DisasterDisasters-both natural and manmade-can strike anywhere and they often hit without warning, so they can be difficult to prepare for. But what happens afterward? How do people cope following disasters? In a new report in Psychological Science in the Public Interest, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, George Bonanno, Chris R. Brewin, Krzysztof Kaniasty, and Annette M. La Greca review the psychological effects of disasters and........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 1/28/2011 7:16:16 AM)
Major roadblock in regenerative medicine eliminatedIn regenerative medicine, large supplies of safe and reliable human embryonic stem (hES) cells are needed for implantation into patients, but the field has faced challenges in developing cultures that can consistently grow and maintain clinical-grade stem cells.
Standard culture systems use mouse "feeder" cells and media containing bovine sera to cultivate and maintain hES cells, but such animal product-based media can contaminate the cells.........Go to the Research news blog (Added on 1/26/2011 7:31:58 AM)
Concerns about experimental cancer approachA study by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has raised safety concerns about an investigational approach to treating cancer.
The strategy takes aim at a key signaling pathway, called Notch, involved in forming new blood vessels that feed tumor growth. When scientists targeted the Notch1 signaling pathway in mice, the animals developed vascular tumors, primarily in the liver, which led to massive hemorrhages........Go to the Cancer-blog (Added on 1/26/2011 7:18:55 AM)
Unrealistic optimism common in early cancer trialsCan optimism be ethically problematic? Yes, as per a newly released study, which found unrealistic optimism prevalent among participants in early-phase cancer trials and suggested that it may compromise informed consent.
A number of cancer scientists and ethicists assume that hope and optimism in the research context are "always ethically benign, without considering the possibility that they reflect a bias," write the authors of the study,........Go to the Research news blog (Added on 1/25/2011 7:48:28 AM)
Conversion of brain tumor cells into blood vesselsGlioblastoma, the most common and lethal form of brain cancer and the disease that killed Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy, resists nearly all therapy efforts, even when attacked simultaneously on several fronts. One explanation can be found in the tumor cells' unexpected flexibility, discovered scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
When faced with a life-threatening oxygen shortage, glioblastoma cells can shift gears and........Go to the Cancer-blog (Added on 1/25/2011 7:26:19 AM)
Workers most invested in their jobs have highest stress levelsA workplace's key employees appears to be at the greatest risk of experiencing high levels of work stress, as per a newly released study by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).
In a survey of 2,737 workers, 18 per cent reported that their job was "highly stressful."
The odds of having high stress were greater if workers were managers or professionals, if they thought their poor job performance could negatively affect others,........Go to the Psychology news blog (Added on 1/25/2011 7:10:41 AM)
Preventing tooth decay in the youngest American Indians-A study conducted in four American Indian communities in the Pacific Northwest presents an effective strategy to convince mothers to switch young children from drinking sweetened soda to water and shows that eliminating these sugary drinks from the diets of the youngest members of the tribe significantly decreased tooth decay.
The results of the dental arm of "The Toddler Overweight and Tooth Decay Prevention Study" (TOTS), which targeted........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/22/2011 6:34:36 AM)
Genetic code for form of pancreatic cancerResearchers at Johns Hopkins have deciphered the genetic code for a type of pancreas cancer, called neuroendocrine or islet cell tumors. The work, described online in the Jan. 20 issue of Science Express, shows that patients whose tumors have certain coding "mistakes" live twice as long as those without them.
"One of the most significant things we learned is that each patient with this kind of rare cancer has a unique genetic code that........Go to the Pancreatic cancer blog (Added on 1/21/2011 8:32:29 PM)
Plasma exchange in severe MS relapsesA new guideline from the American Academy of Neurology recommends using plasma exchange to treat people with severe relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) and related diseases, as well as those with certain kinds of nerve disorders known as neuropathies. The guideline is reported in the January 18, 2011, print issue of Neurology�, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Plasma exchange, formally known as plasmapheresis, is the........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:54:39 AM)
Barriers to performing skin cancer examsTime constraints, other illnesses and patient embarrassment may prevent dermatologists, internists and family practitioners from conducting full-body skin examinations, as per a report in the recent issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. However, dermatologists are significantly more likely than internists and family practitioners to conduct such screenings.
Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in........Go to the Skin news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:26:36 AM)
Smoking accounts for up to 60 percent of gender gap in deathsSmoking accounts for up to 60% of the gender gap in death rates across Europe, and kills twice as a number of men as alcohol, reveals research published online in Tobacco Control
The reasons why women have been outliving men in developed European countries since the mid to late 18th century, in some cases, have been hotly contested.
The gender gap in death rates has sometimes been put down to simple biology, or the fact that women seek........Go to the Society medical news blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:22:49 AM)
Kidney gene and heart failure riskResearchers have identified the first DNA sequence variant common in the population that is not only linked to an increased risk of heart failure, but appears to play a role in causing it.
The variant, a change in a single letter of the DNA sequence, impairs channels that control kidney function.
"It's not a heart gene," says Gerald W. Dorn II, MD, the Philip and Sima K. Needleman Professor of Medicine at Washington University School of........Go to the Heart-watch-blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:17:54 AM)
Outcomes following primary HIV infectionWomen, nonwhites, and people in the southern United States who were newly infected with HIV and followed for an average of four years experienced greater HIV/AIDS-related morbidity in comparison to men and people of other races living in other regions of the country. The findings, reported in the February 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, underscore the urgent need to improve the health of these populations in order to reduce........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 1/18/2011 7:14:26 AM)
Is 'breast only' for first 6 months best?Current guidance advising mothers in the UK to exclusively breast feed for the first six months of their baby's life is being questioned by child health experts on bmj.com today.
The authors, led by Dr Mary Fewtrell, a consultant paediatrician at the UCL Institute of Child Health in London, have evaluated the evidence behind the current guidance and say the time is right to reappraise this recommendation.
The scientists stress that while........Go to the OBGYN news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 10:19:01 PM)
Small details attached to big memoriesNeuroresearchers at MIT's Picower Institute of Learning and Memory have uncovered why relatively minor details of an episode are sometimes inexplicably associated with long-term memories. The work is slated to appear in the Jan. 13 issue of Neuron
"Our finding explains, at least partially, why seemingly irrelevant information like the color of the shirt of an important person is remembered as vividly as more significant information such as........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 9:59:29 PM)
Chemicals in pregnant womenThe bodies of virtually all U.S. pregnant women carry multiple chemicals, including some banned since the 1970s and others used in common products such as non-stick cookware, processed foods and personal care products, as per a newly released study from UCSF.
The study marks the first time that the number of chemicals to which pregnant women are exposed has been counted.
Analyzing data for 163 chemicals, scientists detected........Go to the OBGYN news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 9:23:42 PM)
Menu labeling didn't change behaviorAn effort in King County, Washington, to add nutrition facts labeling to fast food menus had no effect on consumer behavior in its first year.
As part of a comprehensive effort to stem the rise in obesity, the county, which includes Seattle and environs, imposed a required menu labeling regulation on all restaurant chains with 15 or more locations beginning in January, 2009. Restaurants had to disclose calorie information at the point of........Go to the Weight watcher's blog (Added on 1/16/2011 9:22:20 PM)
MRSA vaccineUniversity of Rochester Medical Center orthopaedic researchers are a step closer to developing a vaccine to prevent life-threatening methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections following bone and joint surgery.
Other MRSA vaccine research has failed to produce a viable option for patients because of the inability to identify an agent that can break through the deadly bacteria's unique armor. Most other research has targeted........Go to the Infectious disease blog (Added on 1/16/2011 8:53:23 PM)
Neurons of the deep brainTravel just one millimeter inside the brain and you'll be stepping into the dark.
Standard light microscopes don't allow scientists to look into the interior of the living brain, where memories are formed and diseases such as dementia and cancer can take their toll.
But Stanford researchers have devised a new method that not only lets them peer deep inside the brain to examine its neurons but also allows them to continue monitoring for........Go to the Neurology news blog (Added on 1/16/2011 8:46:16 PM)