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October 6, 2009, 7:12 AM CT

How your ethnicity and diabetic risk are related?

How your ethnicity and diabetic risk are related?
Fat and muscle mass, as potentially determined by a person's ethnic background, may contribute to diabetes risk, as per a newly released study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).

Obesity, a worldwide health concern, is linked to increased insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of obesity is increasing in all populations across the globe, yet past research has observed that body fat distribution varies widely among different ethnic groups. Scientists in this study investigated which ethnic groups were most likely to be at increased risk for diabetes due to higher total body fat and lower muscle mass.

"We know certain ethnic backgrounds show significant differences in amounts of body fat and lean mass," said Scott Lear, PhD, of Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada and main author of the study. "What we didn't know, until now, is if these differences are correlation to insulin levels and insulin resistance, and therefore lead to an increased risk for diabetes. Our findings indicate they are".

In this study, scientists measured insulin levels and compared the amount of total body fat to lean mass in 828 men and women of Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian origin to determine how differences in fat mass and lean mass appears to be correlation to insulin levels and insulin resistance in each group. Of the four ethnic groups studied, South Asians were found to have both higher fat mass, lower muscle mass and greater insulin levels, placing them at increased risk for insulin resistance and diabetes.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


September 29, 2009, 10:39 PM CT

Metabolic syndrome, liver disease and obese teenaged boy

Metabolic syndrome,  liver disease and obese teenaged boy
Scientists studying a large sample of adolescent American boys have found an association between metabolic syndrome, which is a complication of obesity, and elevated liver enzymes that mark potentially serious liver disease.

The link between metabolic syndrome and the suspected liver disease did not appear in adolescent girls, said study leader Rose C. Graham, M.D., a pediatric gastroenterologist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. There were ethnic differences among the boys as well, she added, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic males.

The study appears in the October 2009 print edition of the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

Metabolic syndrome is of concern as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and is estimated to occur in 22 percent of U.S. adults and 4 percent of U.S. adolescents. It is defined by insulin resistance, increased waist circumference, high blood pressure, and abnormal measures of high density lipoprotein ("good cholesterol") and triglycerides in the blood. The criteria are similar for pediatric metabolic syndrome, eventhough there is some dispute over details of the definition.

In adults, scientists have shown an association between metabolic syndrome and a group of diseases called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which at its most severe, may progress to irreversible liver damage. The purpose of the current study was to investigate to what extent metabolic syndrome in adolescents was linked to elevated levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker of NAFLD.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


September 28, 2009, 7:23 AM CT

Diabetic women at higher risk of irregular heart beat

Diabetic women at higher risk of irregular heart beat
Diabetes increases by 26 percent the likelihood that women will develop atrial fibrillation (AF), a potentially dangerous irregular heart rhythm that can lead to stroke, heart failure, and chronic fatigue. These are the findings of a new Kaiser Permanente study, reported in the recent issue of Diabetes Care, a journal of the American Diabetes Association.

While other studies have observed that patients with diabetes are more likely to have AF, this is the first large studyinvolving nearly 35,000 Kaiser Permanente patients over the course of seven yearsto isolate the effect of diabetes and determine that it is an independent risk factor for women.

The most important finding from our study is that women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing this abnormal heart rhythm, said the studys main author, Greg Nichols, PhD, investigator at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Ore. Men with diabetes are also at higher risk, but the association between the two conditions is not as strong. For men, obesity and hypertension are bigger risk factors from diabetes.

AF is the most common arrhythmia in the world, and diabetes is one of the most common and costly health conditions. Our study points out that there is a correlation between these two growing epidemicsone we should pay closer attention to, particularly among women, says Sumeet Chugh, MD, co-author and associate director of the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles. The gender differences need to be looked at more closely because they could have significant implications for how we treat diabetes in men and women.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


September 28, 2009, 6:41 AM CT

Diabetes weakens your bones

Diabetes weakens your bones
Boston, MA and Newark, NJ Current research suggests that the inflammatory molecule TNF-α may contribute to delayed bone fracture healing in diabetics. The related report by Alblowi et al, "High Levels of TNF-α Contribute to Accelerated Loss of Cartilage in Diabetic Fracture Healing" appears in the October 2009 issue of the American Journal of Pathology

Diabetes, a condition where the body either does not produce enough, or respond to, insulin, affects at least 171 million people worldwide, a figure that is likely to double by 2030. Long-term complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, retinal damage that may lead to blindness, nerve damage, and blood vessel damage, which may cause erectile dysfunction and poor wound healing.

Diabetic patients often experience low bone density, which is linked to increased risk of bone fractures and delayed fracture repair. To examine how diabetes affects bone, Dr. Dana Graves and his colleagues of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and the Boston University School of Medicine explored bone repair in a mouse model of diabetes. They observed increased levels of inflammatory molecules, including TNF-α during fracture healing. The diabetic animals had rapid loss of cartilage in the healing bones, which was due to increased numbers of osteoclasts, cells that remove bone and cartilage. Factors that stimulate osteoclast formation were regulated by both TNF-α and a downstream mediator, FOXO1. These results suggest that diabetes-mediated increases in TNF-α and FOXO1 may underlie the impaired healing of diabetic fractures.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


September 23, 2009, 7:15 AM CT

Childbearing Increases Chance of Developing the Metabolic Syndrome

Childbearing Increases Chance of Developing the Metabolic Syndrome
Childbearing is associated directly with future development of the metabolic syndrome - abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular disease risk factors - and for women who have had gestational diabetes, the risk is more than twice greater, as per a co-author of studyed by University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) scientists reported in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

UAB Professor of Preventive Medicine Cora E. Lewis, M.D., M.S.P.H., and his colleagues used data collected in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study to determine the connection between a higher occurence rate of the metabolic syndrome among women ages 18-30 at the start of the study who bore at least one child during the 20-year period following.

"Pregnancy can have lasting, adverse physiological effects and may result in behavioral changes," Lewis said. "Some prior studies have shown an association between childbearing and the metabolic syndrome, and some have shown that a history of gestational diabetes is a strong predictor of Type 2 diabetes.

"However, these studies lacked the preconception measurements to establish a baseline with which to measure the changes brought on by pregnancy," she said. "A number of have not had control groups of women who had not had pregnancies, and thus they have rarely provided conclusive evidence linking pregnancy-related risk factor changes to disease onset. CARDIA began following participants ages 18-30 years in 1985-1986 and continues today, and we had the necessary information to track women both before and after pregnancy and to compare women with pregnancies to those without".........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


September 10, 2009, 6:49 AM CT

Medicine wheel model for nutrition

Medicine wheel model for nutrition
This is the Medicine Wheel, representing the four dietary components of the traditional Northern Plains Indian hunter-gatherer food pattern.

Credit: Figure was created and copyrighted by Kibbe Conti, second author, and used with her permission
American Indian populations experience significant nutrition-related health disparities in comparison to other racial and ethnic groups within the US. American Indian adults have the highest age-adjusted rates for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity of any racial or ethnic group. Age-adjusted rates of diabetes among Native people vary from 14% to 72%, which are 2.4 to more than 6 times the rate of the general US population. As per a research findings reported in the September 2009 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, scientists from the South Dakota State University, Brookings, report that a culturally-sensitive educational program based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition shows promise in changing dietary patterns in an American Indian population and impacting glycemic control.

During a 6-month period from January 2005 through December 2005, participants from the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation were randomized to an education intervention or to a usual care control group. The education group received six nutrition lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition, a diet patterned after the traditional consumption of macronutrients for Northern Plains Indians: protein (25% of energy), moderate in carbohydrate (45% to 50% of energy) and low in fat (25% to 30% of energy). The usual care group received the usual dietary education from their personal providers.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 21, 2009, 8:42 PM CT

How obesity increases the risk for diabetes

How obesity increases the risk for diabetes
Marc Montminy (left) and Yiguo Wang are researchers with the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

Credit: Courtesy of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Obesity is probably the most important factor in the development of insulin resistance, but science's understanding of the chain of events is still spotty. Now, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have filled in the gap and identified the missing link between the two. Their findings, to be reported in the June 21, 2009 advance online edition of the journal Nature, explain how obesity sets the stage for diabetes and why thin people can become insulin-resistant.

The Salk team, led by Marc Montminy, Ph.D., a professor in the Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, discovered how a condition known as ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress, which is induced by a high fat diet and is overly activated in obese people, triggers aberrant glucose production in the liver, an important step on the path to insulin resistance.

In healthy people, a "fasting switch" only flips on glucose production when blood glucose levels run low during fasting. "The existence of a second cellular signaling cascadelike an alternate route from A to Bthat can modulate glucose production, presents the potential to identify new classes of drugs that might help to lower blood sugar by disrupting this alternative pathway," says Montminy.

It had been well established that obesity promotes insulin resistance through the inappropriate inactivation of a process called gluconeogenesis, where the liver creates glucose for fuel and which ordinarily occurs only in times of fasting. Yet, not all obese people become insulin resistant, and insulin resistance occurs in non-obese individuals, leading Montminy and colleagues to suspect that fasting-induced glucose production was only half the story.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 11, 2009, 5:03 AM CT

Snoring pregnant women

Snoring pregnant women
If you are pregnant and your mate complains your frequent snoring is rattling the bedroom windows, you may have bigger problems than an annoyed, sleep-deprived partner.

A newly released study from scientists at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine has observed that women who reported frequent snoring during their pregnancy were more likely to develop gestational diabetes -- a condition than can cause health problems for the mother and baby. The study also found pregnancy increases the likelihood that a woman will snore.

This is the first study to report a link between snoring and gestational diabetes.

For the study, 189 healthy women completed a sleep survey at the time of enrollment (six to 20 weeks gestation) and in the third trimester.

Pregnant women who were frequent snorers had a 14.3 percent chance of developing gestational diabetes, while women who did not snore had a 3.3 percent chance. Even when scientists controlled for other factors that could contribute to gestational diabetes such as body mass index, age, race and ethnicity, frequent snoring was still.

linked to the disease.

Principal investigator Francesca Facco, M.D., a fellow at Northwestern's Feinberg School, will present her findings at the SLEEP 2009 23rd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies June 11.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


June 9, 2009, 5:14 AM CT

Diabetes patients should have regular exercise

Diabetes patients should have regular exercise
To reduce their cardiovascular risk, people with type 2 diabetes should do at least two-and-a-half hours per week of moderate-intensity or one-and-a-half hours per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercises, plus some weight training, as per an American Heart Association scientific statement published in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

The global increase in overweight and obesity has led to an "unprecedented epidemic" in type 2 diabetes (when the body is unable to use insulin efficiently to help turn glucose, or blood sugar, into energy for the body's cells). In 2007, type 2 diabetes in the United States cost an estimated $174 billion in direct medical costs and indirect costs such as disability, lost productivity and premature death. That amount represents a 30 percent increase from the $132 billion estimated in 2002, as per the statement.

Furthermore, heart and blood vessel disease is responsible for nearly 70 percent of deaths in people with type 2 diabetes.

"Given the observed increases in type 2 diabetes in adults over the last few decades in developed countries, and the increasing numbers of overweight and obese individuals throughout the world, we must look at ways to reduce the cardiovascular complications of diabetes, and exercise is one of those ways," said Thomas H. Marwick, M.D., Ph.D., chair of the writing group and professor of medicine and director of the Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease at the University of Queensland School of Medicine in Brisbane, Australia.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 1, 2009, 5:10 AM CT

Obesity and diabetes double risk of HF

Obesity and diabetes double risk of HF
The twin epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes will continue to fuel an explosion in heart failure, already the world's most prevalent chronic cardiovascular disease, as per John McMurray, professor of cardiology at the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, and President of the Heart Failure Association. He reported that around one-third of patients with heart failure have evidence of diabetes, and for them the outlook is very serious. For doctors, he added, effective therapy is "very difficult".

Obesity, like diabetes, is increasing in prevalence. The latest report from Euroaspire, Europe's largest survey of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary patients, observed that the prevalence of obesity had increased from 25 per cent in 1997 to 38 per cent in just ten years and this in people who had already had at least one heart attack.

Now, a session at Heart Failure 2009 emphasises that obesity is not just linked to an increased risk of heart attack, but also and particularly - with an increased risk of heart failure.1,2 "Obesity is at least as great a risk factor for heart failure as it is for heart attack or stroke," says Professor McMurray. "Obesity more than doubles the risk".

The pathways by which obesity plays such a role in heart failure are still not fully understood, but have been shown to have an indirect effect via hypertension, or heart attack, or diabetes and a direct effect on the heart muscle itself. "We know that the underlying changes in the structure and function of the heart appears to be different in obese and non-obese patients with heart failure," says Professor McMurray. An even more "intriguing" suggestion, he added, is that adipose cells might act as an endocrine tissue, secreting substances which may have a harmful effect on heart tissue and blood vessels.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source



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Did you know?
Eventhough having diabetes can sometimes feel isolating to individuals, participation in an Internet-based discussion group offers hope, inspiration and encouragement as well as bolsters people's perceived ability to cope with diabetes, according to a new study from Joslin Diabetes Center. The study, which appears in the November/recent issue of The Diabetes Educator, examined the impact of Joslin's Online Discussion Boards - forums in which people with diabetes can find information and share thoughts and experiences on specific diabetes issues.

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