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July 15, 2007, 9:32 PM CT

Selenium Supplements And Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Selenium Supplements And Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Selenium, an antioxidant included in multivitamin tablets thought to have a possible protective effect against the development of type 2 diabetes, may actually increase the risk of developing the disease, an analysis by scientists at the University at Buffalo has shown.

Results of a randomized clinical trial using 200 micrograms of selenium alone showed that 55 percent more cases of type 2 diabetes developed among participants randomized to receive selenium than in those who received a placebo pill.

Results will appear in print in the August 2007 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine and were posted online on July 10.

Self-reported diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was a secondary endpoint in a clinical trial designed to test the benefit of selenium supplementation in prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer in areas in the Eastern U.S. where selenium levels are lower than the national average. Selenium is a trace mineral that is an essential component of proteins involved in antioxidant activity.

Saverio Stranges, M.D., Ph.D., first author on the diabetes prevention study, conducted the analysis while at UB, in cooperation with colleagues from Roswell Park Cancer Institute. He now is affiliated with the Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, UK.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


July 11, 2007, 4:59 AM CT

New option for treating type 2 diabetes

New option for treating type 2 diabetes
A review of prior studies indicates that use of a class of medications known as incretin-based treatment, which act via certain pathways that affect glucose metabolism may provide modest effectiveness and favorable weight change outcomes for the therapy of type 2 diabetes and may represent an alternative to other hypoglycemic therapies, as per an article in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

Current therapies for type 2 diabetes are often limited by adverse effects such as weight gain or hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). A more recent class of therapy to address these issues is incretin treatment, which involves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by intestinally derived peptides, which are released in the presence of glucose or nutrients in the gut, as per background information in the article. In October 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved the first oral incretin enhancer, sitagliptin, a selective DPP4 inhibitor (a class of oral hypoglycemics), for use as monotherapy or in combination with other medications. The effectiveness of this class of medications in managing type 2 diabetes is not well understood.

Renee E. Amori, M.D., of Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, and his colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of 29 studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of incretin-based treatment (GLP-1 analogues and DPP4 inhibitors) in nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 10, 2007, 8:56 PM CT

Potential New Target For Type 2 Diabetes

Potential New Target For Type 2 Diabetes
Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have discovered a potential new target for treating type 2 diabetes, as per a new study that appeared online this week in Nature. The target is a protein, along with its molecular partner, that regulates fat metabolism.

"Over the last 10 years, we have begun to understand the importance of fat metabolism in diabetes," notes lead author Morris J. Birnbaum, MD, PhD, the Willard and Rhoda Ware Professor of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases at Penn and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "Type 2 diabetics are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease because they also have disorders in fat metabolism as a result of obesity and abnormal insulin action." Birnbaum is also the Associate Director of the Type 2 Diabetes Unit for Penn's Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism.

When a person eats a meal, the pancreas commonly responds by secreting insulin that signals the liver to stop making glucose and burning fat. When a type 2 diabetic eats a meal, insulin cannot stop the manufacture of glucose in the liver, but it can stop the burning of fat stores. This gives the diabetic person a "double whammy:" fatty acids accumulate from food and from the liver. Consequently, more fat is deposited in tissues and obesity worsens.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 31, 2007, 11:40 PM CT

Drinking Sugar-Sweetened Beverages between Meals

Drinking Sugar-Sweetened Beverages between Meals
Research to date has been inconclusive on whether drinking sugar-sweetened beverages between meals increases childrens risk of becoming overweight. Scientists at the University of Ottawa Institute of Population Health say sugar-sweetened drinks can have a negative effect on pre-school children.

The scientists studied the frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals of more than 1,900 children living in Quebec, Canada.

The scientists found nearly 7 percent of children who didnt drink sugar-sweetened beverages between meals between the ages of 2 to 4 were overweight at 4 years old in comparison to 15.4 percent of children who did drink them four to six times or more per week.

Parents should be encouraged to limit the quantity of beverages high in energy and sugar because of their propensity to increase weight, the scientists conclude.

American Dietetic Association Issues Updated Position Statement on Food and Nutrition Professionals Can Implement Practices to Conserve Natural Resources and Support Ecological Sustainability:

ADA is committed to research, policy and programs designed to conserve natural resources and promote ecological sustainability. ADA encourages its members to understand the global implications of their actions, as per an updated ADA position statement published this month:........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 7, 2007, 8:56 PM CT

Exercise Pivotal in Preventing or Fighting Diabetes

Exercise Pivotal in Preventing or Fighting Diabetes
One in three American children born in 2000 will develop type II diabetes, as per the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A new study at the University of Missouri-Columbia says that acute exercise - as little as 15 minutes a day - can have a profound influence on preventing and fighting the disease.

This research adds to the body of evidence that indicates exercise can fight type II diabetes, one of the most widespread self-inflicted healthcare struggles in the United States, and could save Americans millions of dollars in pills, injections and medical therapy. Acute exercise is a bout of activity in which people actively participate, as opposed to activity resulting from everyday activities.

"A number of people can fight type II diabetes through diet and exercise alone," said John Thyfault, professor in the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences' Department of Nutritional Sciences. "It is important to ward off diabetes early. Exercise has proven to be effective at all levels. At any stage of type II diabetes, from an obese child to a person dependent for 20 years on insulin injections, exercise could have a dramatic effect on improving insulin sensitivity."

Type II diabetes results from a lack of insulin production and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. Insulin is necessary to help drive glucose out of the blood and into the tissues of the body. As a result of insulin resistance, cells do not respond appropriately to insulin, causing more insulin to be released to have a measurable effect and ultimately causing insulin and glucose to build up dangerously in the blood.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 1, 2006, 4:18 AM CT

Preparing Food Helps Young Adults Eat Better

Preparing Food Helps Young Adults Eat Better
Young adults who often purchase their own food and prepare meals at home eat fast food less often, eat more fruits and vegetables and have better overall diet quality than those who are not involved in planning and cooking their meals, as per scientists at the University of Minnesota.

The study surveyed more than 1,500 people ages 18 to 23 about their food purchasing and preparation habits and the quality of their diets. The scientists found 31 percent of those surveyed who reported high involvement in meal preparation also consume five servings of fruits or vegetables daily, compared with three percent of those who reported very low involvement in meal preparation. Eighteen percent of the "high participation" group met guidelines for consuming servings of deep-yellow or green vegetables, compared with just 2 percent of the "very low involvement" group.

The scientists found the young adults most likely to be involved with food preparation and purchasing in association tend to be female; Asian, Hispanic or white; and eating at fast-food restaurants fewer than three times per week. Still, even among study participants who were very involved in food preparation, the study found a number of young adults do not meet recommended dietary guidelines in what they eat. "Cooking skills, money to buy food and time available for food preparation were perceived as inadequate by approximately one-fifth to more than one-third of the sample." The scientists conclude: "To improve dietary intake, interventions among young adults should teach skills for preparing quick and healthful meals".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


November 30, 2006, 4:38 AM CT

Metabolic Syndrome May Be Treatable With Malaria Drug

Metabolic Syndrome May Be Treatable With Malaria Drug
Studies of a rare genetic condition that increases cancer risk have unveiled a potential therapy for metabolic syndrome, a common disorder that afflicts as a number of as one in every four American adults and puts them at sharply increased risk of type 2 diabetes and clogged arteries.

Researchers know relatively little about metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a range of symptoms that include obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, low levels of good cholesterol and high blood sugar levels. The number of adults and children with the condition is rising sharply in industrial countries, and diagnoses are also increasing in developing countries like India and China as they adopt Western standards of living.

In findings reported in the recent issue of Cell Metabolism, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tenn. report that a small dose of the malaria drug chloroquine eased a number of symptoms of metabolic syndrome in mice, reducing blood pressure, decreasing hardening and narrowing of the arteries and improving blood sugar tolerance.

"We just received funding for a clinical trial, and we're very excited to see if the processes activated by chloroquine can effectively treat one of the most common health problems of modern industrialized society," says senior author Clay F. Semenkovich, M.D., professor of medicine and of cell biology and physiology at Washington University. "We already know that chloroquine is safe and well-tolerated, and our mouse results suggest we may only need very low and perhaps infrequent doses to achieve similar effects in humans."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


November 26, 2006, 7:13 AM CT

Reversing Type 1 Diabetes In Mice

Reversing Type 1 Diabetes In Mice
New data reported in the Nov. 24 issue of Science provide further support for a protocol to reverse type 1 diabetes in mice and new evidence that adult precursor cells from the spleen can contribute to the regeneration of beta cells. In 2001 and 2003, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) demonstrated the efficacy of a protocol to reverse of type 1 diabetes in diabetic mice. Three studies from other institutions reported in the March 24, 2006 issue of Science confirmed that the MGH-developed protocol can reverse the underlying disease but were inconclusive on the role of spleen cells in the recovery of insulin-producing pancreatic islets. The new data from a study performed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), published as a technical comment, provides additional confirmation of the ability to reverse type 1 diabetes and on the role of the spleen cells in islet regeneration.

"This data from the NIH and the earlier studies have added significantly to the understanding of how diabetes may be reversed," says Denise Faustman, MD, PhD, director of the Immunobiology Laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital, primary author of the 2001 and 2003 studies and co-corresponding author of the current report. "It is still early, but it appears that there are multiple potential sources for regenerating islets. As a research community we should pursue all avenues. We're excited to see what will happen in humans."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


November 21, 2006, 5:22 AM CT

Holiday Gluttony Can Spell Disaster For Undiagnosed Diabetics

Holiday Gluttony Can Spell Disaster For Undiagnosed Diabetics
Hearty feasts and couch-potato marathons are holiday traditions, but UT Southwestern Medical Center experts warn that packing on pounds and not exercising could be deadly for the 6 million Americans who have diabetes and don't even know it.

Diabetes, a metabolic disorder linked with obesity, can be a silent killer because its symptoms aren't sudden, but build up over time and lead to heart disease or other maladies.

That's bad news for those with undiagnosed diabetes.

"The obesity epidemic is surging and people don't realize they're setting themselves up to develop diabetes. They're like ticking time bombs," said Dr. Manisha Chandalia, an endocrinologist at UT Southwestern. "Without therapy, high levels of blood sugars in the body can damage blood vessels and nerves over time, leading to high cholesterol, hypertension, stroke, kidney disease and amputations".

If you are age 40 or older, obese, lack physical activity or have a family history of diabetes, Dr. Chandalia recommends making time during the holidays to visit a doctor for a diabetes test. Symptoms include excessive thirst or hunger, dramatic weight loss, fatigue, frequent urination or blurry vision.

The holidays also are a perfect time to start getting healthy, she said, offering these tips:........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


November 21, 2006, 5:12 AM CT

Clues From Dragonfly About Human Obesity

Clues From Dragonfly About Human Obesity Among dragonfly (Libellula pulchella) a supposedly harmless parasite triggers metabolic disorders similar to those found in humans afflicted with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Parasite-infected dragonflies suffer the same metabolic disorders that have led to an epidemic of obesity and type-2 diabetes in humans, reveal the findings of research conducted at Penn State University that are due would be reported in the 5 December 2006 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science and also in the PNAS early online edition at www.pnas.org on 21 November. The discovery expands the known taxonomic breadth of metabolic disease and suggests that the study of microbes found in human intestines may provide a greater understanding of the root causes of human metabolic dysfunction.

James Marden, professor of biology and an insect physiologist at Penn State, and Ruud Schilder, who in August 2006 earned his doctorate in biology at Penn State and is now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Nebraska, are the first to show a non-mammalian species suffering from metabolic dysfunction in ways similar to humans. "Metabolic disease isn't some strange thing having just to do with humans," said Marden. "Animals in general suffer from these symptoms".

The work is also novel because it links metabolic disease to a supposedly harmless parasite living in the dragonfly's gut. The parasites, known as gregarines, belong to the Apicomplexa, a group of microorganisms that includes protozoa, which cause diseases like malaria and cryptosporidiosis. The dragonfly species that Marden and Schilder studied is Libellula pulchella. The microbes disrupting the dragonfly metabolism may hold clues for researchers looking for the root causes of metabolic diseases in humans, as per Marden and Schilder's paper.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source



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Type-2 Diabetes
Type-2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases diabetes. This disease affects nearly 17 million Americans and is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Even though 17 million Americans have type-2 diabetes only half of these people are aware that they have diabetes. The death rate in patients with diabetes may be up to 11 times higher than in persons without the disease. The occurrence of diabetes in persons 45 to 64 years of age is 7 percent, but the proportion increases significantly in persons 65 years of age or older. Type-2 diabetes accounts for more than 90% of all diabetes worldwide.

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