MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog


Go Back to the main research news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Research News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


August 31, 2010, 6:54 AM CT

Apixaban for prevention of stroke

Apixaban for prevention of stroke
The data monitoring committee of the AVERROES study, seeing overwhelming evidence of the success of apixaban in the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation who are unsuitable for the conventional therapy of warfarin, has recommended early termination of this study. The decision came after repeated review and careful consideration of all efficacy and safety data.

The study leaders, principal investigator Dr. Stuart J. Connolly, chairman of the steering committee Dr. Salim Yusuf, and project officer Dr. John Eikelboom, have accepted this recommendation, as have the study sponsors, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer.

Results of the study were presented by Connolly at the annual European Society of Cardiology Congress in Stockholm, Sweden, on August 31.

The AVERROES study enrolled 5,600 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke who were unsuitable for treatment with a Vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin. These patients were randomized, double-blind, to receive either apixaban or the standard treatment which is Aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome of the AVERROES study was a composite of stroke or systemic embolism and the major safety outcome was major bleeding.

The data monitoring committee observed a relative risk reduction for stroke and systemic embolism of more than 50 per cent, which was highly statistically significant and which met the highly conservative monitoring boundaries of the AVERROES study. There was only a modest increase in major hemorrhage that was not statistically significant.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


August 24, 2010, 7:10 AM CT

Genetic variation linked to lupus

Genetic variation linked to lupus
Genes reside along long chains of DNA called chromosomes. UCLA scientists have observed that a variation in a gene on the sex chromosome X may enhance an immune response that leads to lupus in men.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women. Interestingly, scientists observed that eventhough the variation occurred in a gene on the X, or female, chromosome, its influence was stronger in men than in women. Humans hold two sex chromosomes men have an X and Y, while women have two Xs. Prior studies have shown that genetic variations on the X chromosome contribute to the development of lupus.

In this study, scientists observed that certain common variations of DNA sequences within a specific X-linked gene triggered a stronger response in the immune system, increasing the risk of developing lupus, particularly in men.

This study was part of an international effort to study the genetics of lupus in broader ethnic groups. Scientists genotyped 9,274 Eastern Asians individuals, including those with lupus and healthy controls. The stronger genetic effects were seen in men, compared with women, and particularly in Chinese and Japanese men. Further study will look at other ethnicities.

Scientists say the finding will lead to greater understanding of the development of lupus and to further exploration of the sex-specific genetic contributions of the disease, which could result in more targeted therapies.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


August 11, 2010, 7:07 PM CT

Bone marrow stem cells to treat respiratory failure

Bone marrow stem cells to treat respiratory failure
Xiaohui Fang is the lead author of the new Journal of Biological Chemistry paper providing further evidence of the therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from bone marrow for patients suffering from acute lung injury, one of the most common causes of respiratory failure in intensive care units.

Credit: Cardiovascular Research Institute of the University of California, San Francisco

Scientists are reporting this week newly released study results they say provide further evidence of the therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from bone marrow for patients suffering from acute lung injury, one of the most common causes of respiratory failure in intensive care units.

Led by Drs. Michael A. Matthay and Jae W. Lee at the Cardiovascular Research Institute of the University of California, San Francisco, the team writes in a Journal of Biological Chemistry "Paper of the Week" that its experiments have revealed how a type of bone marrow stem cell bolsters damaged lung cells.

"We observed that these stem cells secreted a significant quantity of a protein that restored the barrier that keeps fluid and other elements out of the lungs," said Lee, an associate professor of anesthesia at UCSF. "We're optimistic about the promise that future clinical trials may hold".

Researchers for decades have harnessed the natural regenerative properties of bone marrow to treat patients with blood-related diseases. And, of late, investigations into the potential of using bone marrow stem cells to treat damaged tissues have intensified.

There are two types of stem cells in bone marrow. One kind, hematopoietic stem cells, is tasked with producing red and white blood cells, depending upon the immune system's needs. The other, mesenchymal stem cells, is the focus of Matthay and Lee's work. While mesenchymal stem cells also support the production of blood cells, researchers today are quite interested in their ability to differentiate into cells that, when mature, develop into tissues throughout the body.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


August 10, 2010, 7:12 AM CT

Daily vitamin D intake

Daily vitamin D intake
Anthony Norman, a leading international expert in vitamin D, proposes worldwide policy changes regarding people's vitamin D daily intake amount in order to maximize the vitamin's contribution to reducing the frequency of a number of diseases, including childhood rickets, adult osteomalacia, cancer, autoimmune type-1 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obesity and muscle weakness.

"A reduction in the frequency of these diseases would increase the quality and longevity of life and significantly reduce the cost of medical care worldwide," said Norman, a distinguished professor emeritus of biochemistry and biomedical sciences at the University of California, Riverside. "It is high time that worldwide vitamin D nutritional policy, now at a crossroads, reflects current scientific knowledge about the vitamin's a number of benefits and develops a sound vision for the future".

Currently, the recommended daily intake of vitamin D in the United States is 200 international units (IU) for people up to 50 years old; 400 IU for people 51 to 70 years old; and 600 IU for people over 70 years old. Today there is a wide consensus among researchers that the relative daily intake of vitamin D should be increased to 2,000 to 4,000 IU for most adults.

"Worldwide public health is best served by a recommendation of higher daily intakes of vitamin D," Norman said. "Currently, more than half the world's population gets insufficient amounts of this vitamin. At present about half of elderly North Americans and Western Europeans and probably also of the rest of the world are not receiving enough vitamin D to maintain healthy bone."........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


August 10, 2010, 7:06 AM CT

A "Magnetic" Solution for Tumors

A
Human lung epithelial tumor cell among healthy epithelial cells
Though a valuable weapon against malignant tumors, radiation treatment often harms healthy tissue as it tries to kill cancerous cells. Now, Prof. Israel Gannot of Tel Aviv University's Department of Biomedical Engineering is developing a new way to destroy tumors with fewer side effects and minimal damage to surrounding tissue.

His innovative method, soon to be reported in the journal Nanomedicine, uses heat to kill the tumor cells but leaves surrounding healthy tissue intact. Using specific biomarkers attached to individual tumors, Prof. Gannot's special mixture of nano-particles and antibodies locates and binds to the tumor itself.

"Once the nano-particles bind to the tumor, we excite them with an external magnetic field, and they begin to heat very specifically and locally," says Prof. Gannot. The magnetic field is manipulated to create a targeted rise in temperature, and it is this directed heat elevation which kills the tumors, he says.

The therapy has been proven effective against epithelial cancers, which can develop in almost any area of the body, such as the breast or lung. By using a special feedback process, also developed in his laboratory, the process can be optimized for individual therapy.

A cure without casualty

The specialized cocktail of nano-particles and antibodies is administered safely and simply, through topical local injection or injection into the blood stream. As an added benefit, the mixture washes out of the body without leaving a trace, minimizing side effects.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


August 6, 2010, 7:25 AM CT

Large risk schizophrenia marker

Large risk schizophrenia marker
A group of researchers has identified a genetic variant that substantially increases the risk for developing schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jewish and other populations. The study, published by Cell Press on August 5th in the American Journal of Human Genetics, associates a deletion on chromosome 3 with increased occurence rate of schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness that affects ~1% of the world population. Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking, it is a devastating disorder.

A group of scientists led by Stephen Warren, Ph.D., from Emory University studied the genetics of schizophrenia by analyzing the prevalence of copy number variants (CNVs) in schizophrenic patients. CNVs are changes in the number of copies of DNA segments throughout the human genome. The scientists began by looking at Ashkenazi Jewish subjects already under study by collaborating scientist Ann E. Pulver, Sc.D. and her team at Johns Hopkins University. The Emory group found an excess of large, rare CNVs in these schizophrenic cases in comparison to controls.

Combining their analysis with those of prior CNV studies of schizophrenic patients, Warren and colleagues identify a CNV, specifically, a deletion at 3q29, that associates with schizophrenia with an odds ratio (a measure of effect size) of 16.98. "This odds ratio rivals that of any genome-wide association study of schizophrenia and suggests that the 3q29 deletion confers a significant risk for this severe psychiatric phenotype," explains Warren. An odds ratio of 17 means someone with this deletion is 17 times more likely to develop schizophrenia than someone without the deletion.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


August 2, 2010, 6:36 AM CT

How stem cells determine what tissue to become

How stem cells determine what tissue to become
This is an image taken with a scanning electron microscope of a human mesenchymal stem cell growing on a plate of long microposts approximately 13 microns in length. After one day of culturing, this cell exerts centripetal force, which can be seen in the bending of the microposts. This cell will differentiate into a fat cell.

Credit: Jianping Fu (University of Michigan)

Within 24 hours of culturing adult human stem cells on a new type of matrix, University of Michigan scientists were able to make predictions about how the cells would differentiate, or what type of tissue they would become. Their results are reported in the Aug. 1 edition of Nature Methods

Differentiation is the process of stem cells morphing into other types of cells. Understanding it is key to developing future stem cell-based regenerative therapies.

"We show, for the first time, that we can predict stem cell differentiation as early as Day 1," said Jianping Fu, an assistant professor in mechanical engineering and biomedical engineering who is the first author on the paper.

"Normally, it takes weeks or maybe longer to know how the stem cell will differentiate. Our work could speed up this lengthy process and could have important applications in drug screening and regenerative medicine. Our method could provide early indications of how the stem cells are differentiating and what the cell types they are becoming under a new drug therapy".

In this study, Fu and colleagues examined stem cell mechanics, the slight forces the cells exert on the materials they are attached to. These traction forces were suspected to be involved in differentiation, but they have not been as widely studied as the chemical triggers. In this paper, the scientists show that the stiffness of the material on which stem cells are cultivated in a lab does, in fact, help to determine what type of cells they turn into.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


July 14, 2010, 7:13 AM CT

Smoking influences gene function

Smoking influences gene function
In the largest study of its kind, scientists at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR) have observed that exposure to cigarette smoke can alter gene expression -- the process by which a gene's information is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. These alterations in response to smoking appear to have a wide-ranging negative influence on the immune system, and a strong involvement in processes correlation to cancer, cell death and metabolism.

The researchers indentified 323 unique genes whose expression levels were significantly correlated with smoking behavior in their study of 1,240 people. The changes were detected by studying the activity of genes within white blood cells of study participants.

"Our results indicate that not only individual genes but entire networks of gene interaction are influenced by cigarette smoking," wrote main author Jac Charlesworth, Ph.D., in the July 15 issue of the open access journal BMC Medical Genomics Charlesworth, formerly at SFBR, is now a research fellow at the Menzies Research Institute at the University of Tasmania in Australia.

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Azar and Shepperd families of San Antonio, ChemGenex Pharmaceuticals and the AT&T Foundation. The study is part of SFBR's San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) which includes 40 families in the Mexican American community.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


July 9, 2010, 7:00 AM CT

Vitamin B3 to treat fungal infections

Vitamin B3 to treat fungal infections
A team of scientists from the Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer of the University of Montreal have identified vitamin B3 as a potential antifungal treatment.

Credit: Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC) of the University of Montreal

A team of researchers from the Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC) of the University of Montreal have identified vitamin B3 as a potential antifungal therapy. Led by IRIC Principal Investigators Martine Raymond, Alain Verreault and Pierre Thibault, in collaboration with Alaka Mullick, from the Biotechnology Research Institute of the National Research Council Canada, the study is the subject of a recent article in Nature Medicine

Infections by the yeast Candida albicans represent a significant public health problem and a common complication in immunodeficient individuals such as AIDS patients, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and recipients of organ transplants. While some therapys are available, their efficacy can be compromised by the emergence of drug-resistant strains.

The current study shows that a C. albicans enzyme, known as Hst3, is essential to the growth and survival of the yeast. Scientists observed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Hst3 with nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, strongly reduced C. albicans virulence in a mouse model. Both normal and drug-resistant strains of C. albicans were susceptible to nicotinamide. In addition, nicotinamide prevented the growth of other pathogenic Candida species and Aspergillus fumigatus (another human pathogen), thus demonstrating the broad antifungal properties of nicotinamide.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


July 9, 2010, 6:55 AM CT

Changing the cancer cell to respond to tamoxifen

Changing the cancer cell to respond to tamoxifen
Tamoxifen is a drug, taken orally as a tablet, which interferes with the activity of estrogen, a female hormone.

Using a small molecule decoy, researchers funded by the Samuel Waxman Cancer Research Foundation have managed to block protein interactions and induce epigenetic reprogramming in human and mouse breast cancer cells, essentially changing the gene expression of breast cancer cells to behave in a more normal manner. The research illustrates what may perhaps become an effective targeted epigenetic treatment in breast cancer. Interestingly, the targeted therapy showed exciting results in triple-negative breast cancer cells, reverting their function and appearance, and sensitizing them to tamoxifen and retinoids.

By introducing a small peptide, called the SID decoy, to interfere with protein binding in the Sin 3 PAH2 domain, researchers reduced the growth of triple-negative cancer cells by 80 percent. The decoy also blocked cancer cell invasion, which may shed light on preventing metastasis. The study was reported in the June 29 print edition of the journal of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer more usually diagnosed in young women, African-American women and women with BRCA-1 mutated cancers, said medical oncologist Samuel Waxman, M.D., the study's senior author. Currently, the only therapy options that women with triple-negative breast cancer have are radiation treatment, surgery and chemotherapy. Women with triple-negative breast cancer do not respond to hormonal treatment or Herceptin and have a higher recurrence rate after chemotherapy.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70   71   72   73   74   75   76   77   78   79   80   81   82   83   84   85   86   87   88   89   90   91   92   93   94   95   96   97  

Did you know?
Scientists at Yale have brought to light a mechanism that regulates the way an internal organelle, the Golgi apparatus, duplicates as cells prepare to divide, according to a report in Science Express.Graham Warren, professor of cell biology, and colleagues at Yale study Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes Sleeping Sickness. Like a number of parasites, it is exceptionally streamlined and has only one of each internal organelle, making it ideal for studying processes of more complex organisms that have a number of copies in each cell.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.