MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of neurology news blog


Go Back to the main neurology news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Neurology News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


February 14, 2011, 7:39 AM CT

Reduced levels of neurotransmitter in MS

Reduced levels of neurotransmitter in MS
Scientists at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated for the first time that damage to a particular area of the brain and a consequent reduction in noradrenaline are linked to multiple sclerosis.

The study is available online in the journal Brain

The pathological processes in MS are not well understood, but an important contributor to its progression is the infiltration of white blood cells involved in immune defense through the blood-brain barrier.

Douglas Feinstein, research professor in anesthesiology at the UIC College of Medicine, and colleagues previously showed that the neurotransmitter noradrenaline plays an important role as an immunosuppressant in the brain, preventing inflammation and stress to neurons. Noradrenaline is also known to help to preserve the integrity of the blood-brain barrier.

Because the major source of noradrenaline is neurons in an area of the brain called the locus coeruleus, the UIC scientists hypothesized that damage to the LC was responsible for lowered levels of noradrenaline in the brains of MS patients.

"There's a lot of evidence of damage to the LC in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but this is the first time that it has been demonstrated that there is stress involved to the neurons in the LC of MS patients, and that there is a reduction in brain noradrenaline levels," said Paul Polak, research specialist in the health sciences in anesthesiology and first author on the paper.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 14, 2011, 7:37 AM CT

Blood test to detect Alzheimer's disease

Blood test to detect Alzheimer's disease
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have helped develop a novel technology to diagnose Alzheimer's disease from blood samples long before symptoms appear.

This preliminary technology, which uses synthetic molecules to seek out and identify disease-specific antibodies, also could be used eventually in the development of specific biomarkers for a range of other hard-to-diagnose diseases and conditions, including Parkinson's disease and immune system-related diseases like multiple sclerosis and lupus, the scientists predict.

"One of the great challenges in treating patients with Alzheimer's disease is that once symptoms appear, it's too late. You can't un-ring the bell," said Dr. Dwight German, professor of psychiatry and an author of the paper reported in the Jan. 7 edition of Cell "If we can find a way to detect the disease in its earliest stages � before cognitive impairment begins � we might be able to stop it in its tracks by developing new therapy strategies".

Because patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit immune system activation and neurodegeneration in several brain regions, scientists in the study hypothesized that there appears to be numerous antibodies in the serum of affected patients that are specific to the disease and can serve as a biomarker.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 14, 2011, 7:35 AM CT

Compound blocks brain cell destruction in Parkinson's disease

Compound blocks brain cell destruction in Parkinson's disease
Researchers from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have produced the first known compound to show significant effectiveness in protecting brain cells directly affected by Parkinson's disease, a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder.

Eventhough the findings were in animal models of the disease, the effectiveness of the compound, combined with its potential to be taken orally, offers the tantalizing possibility of a potentially useful future treatment for Parkinson's disease patients.

The results were published in two separate studies in the journal ACS Chemical Neuroscience

"These studies present compelling data on the first oral, brain-penetrating inhibitor to show significant efficacy in preventing neurodegeneration in both mouse and rat models of Parkinson's disease," said team leader Philip LoGrasso, a professor in the Department of Molecular Therapeutics and senior director for drug discovery at Scripps Florida. "The compound offers one of the best opportunities we have for the development of an effective neuroprotective therapy".

The new small molecule�labeled SR-3306�is aimed at inhibiting a class of enzymes called c-jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK). Pronounced "junk," these enzymes have been shown to play an important role in neuron (nerve cell) survival. As such, they have become a highly viable target for drugs to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 14, 2011, 7:07 AM CT

Flavonoids may lower risk of Parkinson's

Flavonoids may lower risk of Parkinson's
New research shows men and women who regularly eat berries may have a lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease, while men may also further lower their risk by regularly eating apples, oranges and other sources rich in dietary components called flavonoids. The study was released recently and will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 63rd Annual Meeting in Honolulu April 9 to April 16, 2011.

Flavonoids are found in plants and fruits and are also known collectively as vitamin P and citrin. They can also be found in berry fruits, chocolate, and citrus fruits such as grapefruit.

The study involved 49,281 men and 80,336 women. Scientists gave participants questionnaires and used a database to calculate intake amount of flavonoids. They then analyzed the association between flavonoid intakes and risk of developing Parkinson's disease. They also analyzed consumption of five major sources of foods rich in flavonoids: tea, berries, apples, red wine and oranges or orange juice. The participants were followed for 20 to 22 years.

During that time, 805 people developed Parkinson's disease. In men, the top 20 percent who consumed the most flavonoids were about 40 percent less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than the bottom 20 percent of male participants who consumed the least amount of flavonoids. In women, there was no relationship between overall flavonoid consumption and developing Parkinson's disease. However, when sub-classes of flavonoids were examined, regular consumption of anthocyanins, which are mainly obtained from berries, were found to be linked to a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in both men and women.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 8, 2011, 6:44 AM CT

Late nights can lead to higher risk of strokes

Late nights can lead to higher risk of strokes
New research from Warwick Medical School published recently in the European Heart Journal shows that prolonged sleep deprivation and disrupted sleep patterns can have long-term, serious health implications. Leading academics from the University have linked lack of sleep to strokes, heart attacks and cardiovascular disorders which often result in early death.

Professor Francesco Cappuccio from the University of Warwick Medical School, explained: "If you sleep less than six hours per night and have disturbed sleep you stand a 48 per cent greater chance of developing or dying from heart disease and a 15 per cent greater chance of developing or dying of a stroke.

"The trend for late nights and early mornings is actually a ticking time bomb for our health so you need to act now to reduce your risk of developing these life-threatening conditions".

Professor Cappuccio and co-author Dr Michelle Miller, from the University of Warwick, conducted the research programme which followed up evidence from seven to 25 years from more than 470,000 participants from eight countries including Japan, USA, Sweden and UK.

Professor Cappuccio explained: "There is an expectation in today's society to fit more into our lives. The whole work/life balance struggle is causing too a number of of us to trade in precious sleeping time to ensure we complete all the jobs we believe are expected of us".........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 7, 2011, 7:59 AM CT

Allergies lower risk of glioma

Allergies lower risk of glioma
The more allergies one has, the lower the risk of developing low- and high-grade glioma, as per data published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago, used self-reported data on medically diagnosed allergies and antihistamine use for 419 patents with glioma and 612 cancer-free patients from Duke University and NorthShore University HealthSystem. Controls had no history of brain tumors or any cancers, and did not have a history of neurodegenerative disease.

"Other studies have observed a connection between allergies and glioma risk," said Bridget McCarthy, Ph.D., a research associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health. "In this study we confirmed that allergies are protective and observed that the more allergies one has, the more protected he or she is."

Participants completed a web-based or telephone survey and were asked if they were medically diagnosed with allergies or asthma at least two years previous to the survey, and if so, the age of diagnosis. In addition, they were asked to indicate the number of individual allergies within each of the following groupings: seasonal, pet, medication, food and other.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 5, 2011, 7:16 AM CT

The brain knows what the nose smells, but how?

The brain knows what the nose smells, but how?
Professor Liqun Luo, left, in his lab with post doctoral fellow Kazunari Miyamichi who is the lead author on the paper to be published in Nature magazine.

Credit: L.A. Cicero, Stanford University News Service

Mice know fear. And they know to fear the scent of a predator. But how do their brains quickly figure out with a sniff that a cat is nearby?

It's a complex process that starts with the scent being picked up by specific receptors in their noses. But until now it wasn't clear exactly how these scent signals proceeded from nose to noggin for neural processing.

In a study to be published in Nature (available online now to subscribers), Stanford scientists describe a new technique that makes it possible to map long-distance nerve connections in the brain. The researchers used the technique to map for the first time the path that the scent signals take from the olfactory bulb, the part of the brain that first receives signals from odor receptors in the nose, to higher centers of the mouse brain where the processing is done.

"No one could trace signals across neural connections to a specific type of neuron at a specific location before," said biology Professor Liqun Luo. This is Luo's first study of the mouse olfactory system, but his lab has spent 10 years studying olfactory pathways in the fruit fly. Because mouse brains are so much larger and more complex that those of flies, Luo and postdoctoral researcher Kazunari Miyamichi had to develop an entirely new experimental technique.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 3, 2011, 7:50 AM CT

Weak electrical fields in the brain help neurons fire together

Weak electrical fields in the brain help neurons fire together
Ephaptic coupling leads to coordinated spiking of nearby neurons, as measured using a 12-pipette electrophysiology setup developed in the laboratory of coauthor Henry Markram.

Credit: Image from Figure 4 in Anastassiou et., Nature Neuroscience, 2011

The brain�awake and sleeping�is awash in electrical activity, and not just from the individual pings of single neurons communicating with each other. In fact, the brain is enveloped in countless overlapping electric fields, generated by the neural circuits of scores of communicating neurons. The fields were once believed to be an "epiphenomenon, a 'bug' of sorts, occurring during neural communication," says neuroscientist Costas Anastassiou, a postdoctoral scholar in biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

New work by Anastassiou and colleagues, however, suggests that the fields do much more�and that they may, in fact, represent an additional form of neural communication.

"In other words," says Anastassiou, the main author of a paper about the work appearing in the journal Nature Neuroscience, "while active neurons give rise to extracellular fields, the same fields feed back to the neurons and alter their behavior," even though the neurons are not physically connected�a phenomenon known as ephaptic coupling. "So far, neural communication has been thought to occur at localized machines, termed synapses. Our work suggests an additional means of neural communication through the extracellular space independent of synapses".

Extracellular electric fields exist throughout the living brain, though they are especially strong and robustly repetitive in specific brain regions such as the hippocampus, which is involved in memory formation, and the neocortex, the area where long-term memories are held. "The perpetual fluctuations of these extracellular fields are the hallmark of the living and behaving brain in all organisms, and their absence is a strong indicator of a deeply comatose, or even dead, brain," Anastassiou explains.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


February 2, 2011, 10:50 PM CT

Migraine surgery offers good long-term outcomes

Migraine surgery offers good long-term outcomes
Surgery to "deactivate" migraine headaches produces lasting good results, with nearly 90 percent of patients having at least partial relief at five years' follow-up, reports a study in the recent issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery�, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).

In about 30 percent of patients, migraine headaches were completely eliminated after surgery, as per the newly released study, led by Dr. Bahman Guyuron, chairman of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio.



'Trigger Site' Surgery Reduces or Eliminates Migraine Headaches


Dr. Guyuron, a plastic surgeon, developed the migraine surgery techniques after noticing that some migraine patients had reduced headache activity after undergoing cosmetic forehead-lift procedures. The techniques consist of "surgical deactivation" of "trigger sites" in the muscles or nerves that produce pain.

For example, for patients with frontal migraine headaches starting in the forehead, the muscles in that area were removed, as in forehead-lift surgery. This procedure may reduce headache attacks by relieving pressure on key nerve in the frontal area. Other approaches target other migraine trigger sites.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


January 25, 2011, 7:26 AM CT

Conversion of brain tumor cells into blood vessels

Conversion of brain tumor cells into blood vessels
Glioblastoma tumor cells (shown in green) can transform into endothelial cells (shown in red), which line the interior surface of a tumor vessel.

Credit: Courtesy of Dr. Yasushi Soda, Salk Institute for Biological Studies

Glioblastoma, the most common and lethal form of brain cancer and the disease that killed Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy, resists nearly all therapy efforts, even when attacked simultaneously on several fronts. One explanation can be found in the tumor cells' unexpected flexibility, discovered scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

When faced with a life-threatening oxygen shortage, glioblastoma cells can shift gears and morph into blood vessels to ensure the continued supply of nutrients, reports a team led by Inder Verma, Ph.D., in a feature article in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Their study not only explains why cancer therapys that target angiogenesis--the growth of a network of blood vessels that supplies nutrients and oxygen to malignant tissues--routinely fail in glioblastoma, but the findings may also spur the development of drugs aimed at novel targets.

"This surprising effect of anti-angiogenic treatment with drugs such as Avastin tells us that we have to rethink glioblastoma combination treatment," says senior author Verma, a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics and holder of the Irwin and Joan Jacobs Chair in Exemplary Life Science. "Disrupting the formation of tumor blood vessels is not enough; we also have to prevent the conversion of tumor cells into blood vessels cells".........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70   71   72   73   74  

Did you know?
The drug Ativan is better than Valium or Dilantin for controlling severe epileptic seizures, according to a new review of studies.Ativan, or lorazepam, and Valium, or diazepam, are both benzodiazepines, the currently preferred class of drugs for treating severe epileptic seizures. Dilantin, or phenytoin, is an anticonvulsant long used for the treatment of epileptic seizures.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of neurology news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.