Medicineworld.org: Archives of cancer-blog
Go Back to the main cancer-blog
Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed
Archives Of Cancer-blog From Medicineworld.Org
October 12, 2009, 7:08 AM CT
Challenging traditional bladder treatment decision
ATLANTA--A statistical model can accurately predict which patients will have poor outcomes after bladder surgery and can determine the need for chemotherapy. The analysis, to be reported in the December 1, 2009 issue of CANCER
, a peer-evaluated journal of the American Cancer Society, concludes that the model, which considers both how far the cancer has spread and other information, such as how the cancer cells look under the microscope and the time between diagnosis and surgery, could better identify patients who need to undergo further therapy.
A number of individuals with bladder cancer have surgery to remove the bladder as an initial therapy. Following surgery, doctors must decide whether to recommend that the patient receive chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Chemotherapy is typically recommended only for patients with higher stage disease. However, it is widely accepted that while a number of patients receive chemotherapy unnecessarily, some patients with low stage disease who are not referred to chemotherapy nonetheless experience a cancer recurrence.
Scientists led by Andrew J. Vickers, PhD, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City set out to determine whether use of a previously published prediction model to inform medical decision making would lead to superior clinical outcomes. To demonstrate their findings, they compared the clinical outcomes of the different routes in which bladder cancer patients would be referred to chemotherapy: based only on cancer stage, as is current practice, or based on the bladder cancer prediction model.........
Posted by: Mark Read more Source
October 7, 2009, 8:01 PM CT
Why African American lung cancer patients respond differently?
Clinical research out of University Hospitals Case Medical Center has observed that African Americans with a common form of lung cancer have a lower frequency of drug-sensitizing genetic mutations, which may impact response to new cancer-fighting drugs. Published online in the Journal of Clinical Oncology,
the study by Rom Leidner, MD, and his colleagues report that ethnicity plays a significant role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) genetics and more personalized therapys appears to be beneficial to cancer patients.
African American patients with NSCLC are significantly less likely than Caucasian counterparts to harbor activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in their cancers, which suggests that common oral EGFR inhibitor drugs, such as Tarceva (erlotinib), are unlikely to yield dramatic remissions. Additionally, cancer biopsy testing revealed that African American patients with NSCLC are significantly more likely to have increased copies of the EGFR gene than Caucasians. Detection of increased copies of the Her2 gene in breast cancer, a gene closely correlation to EGFR, has been the basis for major advances in treatment using drugs which target Her2.
"We are finding that ethnicity may play a significant role in a variety of cancers," says Dr. Leidner, an oncologist with Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Visiting Instructor at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. "It was already known that a higher proportion of East Asian NSCLC patients harbor mutations of the EGFR gene than Caucasians, and that these mutations are linked to a higher likelihood of major responses to EGFR inhibitors. Before our study, however, surprisingly little data existed for African American patients with this common type of lung cancer."........
Posted by: Scott Read more Source
October 7, 2009, 7:10 AM CT
Diffuse Optical Tomography for breast cancer screening
As light travels from the source, once it hits the black circle where the tumor is located, the lightwaves become distorted.
image by: Clemson University
Clemson University scientists in collaboration with scientists at the University of Bremen, Gera number of, are working to make the physical pain and discomfort of mammograms a thing of the past, while allowing for diagnostic imaging eventually to be done in a home setting.
The group is fine-tuning Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) to create high-resolution images from a scattering of infrared and visible light for the early detection of breast cancer. While the method is less expensive, safer and more comfortable than X-rays used in mammograms, the problem has been generating a strong enough resolution to detect smaller breast cancers.
Mathematical sciences professors Taufiquar "T.K." Khan of Clemson and Peter Maass of the University of Bremen are in the process of developing mathematical models to improve resolution.
"The problem with DOT is that it is a 3-D method where photon density waves launched from a source travel in a banana-shaped path due to multiple scattering, whereas X-rays follow straight lines which make the mathematical problem more manageable and the resolution of the image sharper." said Khan. "With DOT, near-infrared or near-visible photons make the process safer for the body than with the radiation of X-rays, but they are difficult to track because of the scattering and absorption. So we are coming up with equations that will help get us from capturing cancers that are 4 millimeters in size, down to capturing those as small as 1 millimeter".........
Posted by: Janet Read more Source
September 29, 2009, 8:25 AM CT
New perspectives on cancer surgery
Instead of the classic scalpel, surgeons can also operate with an electroscalpel. A significant advantage to this technique is that while a cut is being made, blood vessels are closed off and hemorrhaging eliminated. Now another advantage appears to be added as well: a German-Hungarian research team has developed a mass-spectrometry-based technique by which tissues can be analyzed during a surgical procedure. As the team led by Zoltn Takts reports in the journal Angewandte Chemie
, it appears to be possible to distinguish between cancerous tumor cells and the surrounding healthy tissue in real time during cancer surgery. Until now, precise histological examination of the removed tissue has followed after tumor surgery, and has mandatory several days. If it reveals that the tumor has not been completely removed, a second operation is needed. The new method may spare patients this second surgery in the future.
In electrosurgery, tissue is locally exposed to high-frequency electrical current in order to guide a cut, remove tissue, or halt bleeding. The tissue being treated becomes very hot and is partially vaporized. The electrical current also generates electrically charged molecules during the vaporization. The team of researchers from the University of Giessen, the Budapest firm Massprom, Semmelweis University, and the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, also in Budapest, made use of this process for their new method called rapid evaporation ionization mass spectrometry, or REIMS. They equipped an electrosurgical instrument with a special pump that sucks the vaporized cell components up through a tube and introduces the charged molecules into a mass spectrometer.........
Posted by: Janet Read more Source
September 28, 2009, 6:57 AM CT
More breast cancer patients electing to remove other breast
A newly released study of New York State data finds that the number of women opting for surgery to remove the healthy breast after a cancer diagnosis in one breast is rising, despite a lack of evidence that the surgery can improve survival. The study also finds that despite extensive press coverage of women who choose to have both breasts removed because of a strong family history of cancer, the rate of this surgery is relatively low and has changed little in the last decade. The study appears in Cancer
, a peer-evaluated journal of the American Cancer Society.
Prophylactic mastectomy, the removal of a nonmalignant breast, is one method for reducing a woman's risk of developing breast cancer; however, there is little information available on the prevalence of prophylactic mastectomies for preventing breast cancer among high-risk women or on the prevalence of the surgery to prevent tumors in the healthy breast among women whose cancer is limited to one breast.
Scientists led by Stephen B. Edge, M.D., FACS, of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, examined the frequency of prophylactic mastectomies in New York State between 1995 and 2005 using mandated statewide hospital discharge data combined with data from the state cancer registry. They identified 6,275 female New York residents who underwent prophylactic mastectomies. Eighty-one percent of the women had been diagnosed with cancer in one breast, while 19 percent had no personal history of breast cancer.........
Posted by: Janet Read more Source
September 28, 2009, 6:55 AM CT
How income affects prostate cancer survival
Prostate cancer patients who is living on low income is likely to die earlier compared to prostate cancer patients who are economically in a more advantageous position. That is the finding of a new study from Swiss researchers to be published in the December 1, 2009 issue of Cancer
, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The study's findings indicate that poor prostate cancer patients receive worse care than their wealthier counterparts.
A number of of the prior studies on socioeconomic status (SES) and prostate cancer mortality are from North America, especially from the United States. Scientists wanted to know how disparities affected prostate cancer mortality in Switzerland, a country with an extremely well developed health care system and where healthcare costs, medical coverage, and life expectancy are among the highest in the world, Elisabetta Rapiti, M.D., MPH, of the University of Geneva and her colleagues conducted a population-based study that included all residents of the region who were diagnosed with invasive prostate cancer between 1995 and 2005.
The analysis included 2,738 patients identified through the Geneva Cancer Registry. A patient with prostate cancer was classified as having high, medium, or low socioeconomic status on the basis of his occupation at the time of diagnosis. The researchers compared patient and tumor characteristics, as well as therapys among the different socioeconomic groups.........
Posted by: Mark Read more Source
September 24, 2009, 7:01 AM CT
Vaccination could eradicate cervical cancer
Cervical cancer could be eradicated within the next 50 years if countries implement national screening programmes based on detection of the human papilloma virus (HPV), which causes the disease, together with vaccination programmes against the virus, as per a cervical cancer screening expert.
Professor Jack Cuzick told Europe's largest cancer congress, ECCO 15 ESMO 34 , in Berlin today (Thursday 24 September) that while the current HPV vaccines protect against two cancer-causing strains of the HPV virus, soon there would be vaccines available that protect against nine types. If vaccination were to be combined with HPV screening (which is much more sensitive than the currently used Pap smear test), then eventually the cancer would disappear in those countries that had successfully implemented national programmes. However, this would require political will and effort at both national and European level.
"It's important to say up front that the HPV is responsible for all cervix cancer," said Prof Cuzick. "If you can eradicate the virus, the cancer will not appear. So the current vaccine holds the promise of eradicating about 70-75% of cervical cancers (caused by HPV types 16 and 18), and there may be some additional cross protection amongst types that are closely correlation to 16 or 18, in particular 31, 45 and a little bit of 33. There are new vaccines being planned that will vaccinate against nine types. If they are successful, there should be no need to screen women that have been vaccinated at all. That's the long-term future: vaccination and no screening. After about 50 years, we could see cervical cancer disappearing".........
Posted by: Emily Read more Source
September 24, 2009, 6:59 AM CT
Excess body weight causes over 124,000 new cancers a year in Europe
At least 124,000 new cancers in 2008 in Europe may have been caused by excess body weight, as per estimates from a new modelling study. The proportion of cases of new cancers attributable to a body mass index of 25kg/m2 or more were highest among women and in central European countries such as the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovenia and Bulgaria.
The main author of the study , Dr Andrew Renehan, told Europe's largest cancer congress, ECCO 15 ESMO 34 , in Berlin today (Thursday 24 September): "As more people stop smoking and fewer women take hormone replacement treatment, it is possible that obesity appears to become the biggest attributable cause of cancer in women within the next decade".
Dr Renehan, who is a senior lecturer in cancer studies and surgery at the University of Manchester (UK), and colleagues in the UK, The Netherlands and Switzerland, created a sophisticated model to estimate the proportion of cancers that could be attributed to excess body weight in 30 European countries. Using data from many sources including the World Health Organisation and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, they estimated that in 2002 (the most recent year for which there are reliable statistics on cancer incidence in Europe) there had been over 70,000 new cases of cancer attributable to excess BMI out of a total of nearly 2.2 million new diagnoses across the 30 European countries.........
Posted by: JoAnn Read more Source
September 24, 2009, 6:57 AM CT
Progress in Pancreatic cancer treatment
For the first time scientists have shown that by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called TAK-1, it is possible to make pancreas cancer cells sensitive to chemotherapy, opening the way for the development of a new drug to treat the disease.
Dr Davide Melisi told Europe's largest cancer congress, ECCO 15 ESMO 34 , in Berlin today (Thursday 24 September) that resistance to chemotherapy was the greatest challenge to treating pancreas cancer.
"Pancreas cancer is an incurable malignancy, resistant to every anti-cancer therapy. Targeting TAK-1 could be a strategy to revert this resistance, increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy," said Dr Melisi, who until the start of September was a Fellow at the M.D. Anderson Center in Houston (Texas, USA); he has now moved to a staff position at the National Cancer Institute in Naples (Italy). "During the past few years we have been studying the role played by a cytokine or regulatory protein called Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) in the development of pancreas cancer. Recently we focused our attention on a unique enzyme activated by TGFbeta, TAK-1, as a mediator for this extreme drug resistance".
Dr Melisi and colleagues investigated the expression of TAK-1 (TGFbeta-Activated Kinase-1) in pancreatic cell lines and developed a drug that was capable of inhibiting TAK-1. They tested the activity of the TAK-1 inhibitor on its own and in combination with the anti-cancer drugs gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and SN-38 (a metabolite of the anti-cancer drug irinotecan) in cell lines, and the activity of the TAK-1 inhibitor combined with gemcitabine against pancreas cancer in mice.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
September 23, 2009, 7:06 AM CT
Ultrasound can predict survival in melanoma
Scientists have demonstrated for the first time that patterns of ultrasound signals can be used to identify whether or not cancer has started to spread in melanoma patients, and to what extent. The discovery enables doctors to decide on how much surgery, if any, is mandatory and to predict the patient's probable survival.
Dr Christiane Voit told Europe's largest cancer congress, ECCO 15 ESMO 34 , in Berlin today (Wednesday 23 September): "We have identified two ultrasound patterns of lymph node metastasis in melanoma patients which can identify correctly any amount of tumour cells in the sentinel lymph nodes in 75-90% of cases before proceeding to surgery on the sentinel lymph nodes".
Dr Voit, who is a dermatologist and head of the diagnostic unit at the Skin Cancer Centre at Charit Universittsmedizin Berlin, the Medical University of Berlin, Gera number of, said that eventhough her research needs to be confirmed in multi-centre, randomised clinical trials, it had the potential to spare patients unnecessary surgery, particularly if it was combined with ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of lymph nodes rather than conventional surgery.
Since 2001 Dr Voit and her colleagues in Gera number of and The Netherlands have included 850 melanoma patients in a prospective study to investigate the use of ultrasound in diagnosis and therapy planning. They have already demonstrated that ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of sentinel nodes before conventional sentinel node surgery can identify up to 65% of patients in whom the cancer has started to spread. The study presented today shows how far ultrasound patterns correlate with disease progression, tumour burden, survival and prognosis in the first 400 of these patients with stage I/II melanoma and with the longest follow-up.........
Posted by: Janet Read more Source
Older Blog Entries
Cancer is a very common disease, approximately one out of every two American men and one out of every three American women will have some type of cancer at some point during the course of their life. Cancer is more common in the elderly and 77 percent of cancers occur in people above age 55 or older. Cancer is also common in children. Cancer incidence is said to have two peaks once during early childhood and then during late years in life. No age period is completely exempted from development of cancers. Some cancers occur predominantly in the elderly, other types occur in children, Cancer occurs in all ethnic races, however the cancer rates and rates of specific cancer types may vary from group to group. Late stages of cancer may be incurable in most cases, but with the advancement of medicine, more and more cancers are becoming curable.
Medicineworld.org: Archives of cancer-blog
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.