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June 11, 2007, 4:06 PM CT

Hot Flashes With Breast Cancer Treatment

Hot Flashes With Breast Cancer Treatment
Women on tamoxifen treatment who reported having hot flashes were less likely to develop recurrent breast cancer than those who did not report hot flashes, as per a research studyfrom the Moores Cancer Center at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Moreover, hot flashes were a stronger predictor of outcome than age, hormone receptor status or even how advanced the breast cancer was at diagnosis.

The study results were published online June 1 by the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, and were presented June 4 at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting in Chicago.

"Hot flashes are a very common and disruptive problem in breast cancer survivors," said the study's first author Joanne Mortimer, M.D., medical director of the Moores Cancer Center and professor of medicine with the UCSD School of Medicine. "About two-thirds of women with breast cancer say hot flashes compromise their quality of life. The most common request for additional therapy we get is for relief from these symptoms".

The study was based upon data from the comparison group of the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study - a multi-site randomized trial of the impact of a diet high in vegetables, fruits and fiber, and low in fat on the recurrence of breast cancer. The WHEL participating institutions are University of California, San Diego and Davis, Stanford University, Kaiser Permanente in Oakland and Portland, University of Arizona at Tucson, and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


June 11, 2007, 3:52 PM CT

Diet and Exercise Keyto Surviving BreastCancer

Diet and Exercise Keyto Surviving BreastCancer
Breast cancer survivors who eat a healthy diet and exercise moderately can reduce their risk of dying from breast cancer by half, regardless of their weight, suggests a new longitudinal study from the Moores Cancer Center at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD).

Prior studies have looked at the impact of diet or physical activity on breast cancer survival, with mixed results. This study, reported in the June 10 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, is the first to look at a combination of both in breast cancer.

"We demonstrate in this study of breast cancer survivors that even if a woman is overweight, if she eats at least five servings of vegetables and fruits a day and walks briskly for 30 minutes, six days a week, her risk of death from her disease goes down by 50 percent," said the paper's first author, John Pierce, Ph.D., director of the Cancer Prevention and Control Program at the Moores UCSD Cancer Center. "The key is that you must do both".

The study looked at 1,490 women aged 70 years and younger (average 50 years) with early stage breast cancer who were randomly assigned to the non-intensive dietary arm of the ongoing Women's Health Eating and Living (WHEL) study. The WHEL study is a multi-center study, based at UCSD, investigating the effect of a plant-based diet on additional breast cancer events.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


June 10, 2007, 8:49 PM CT

Sun exposure early in life and skin cancer

Sun exposure early in life and skin cancer
Skin cancers often contain different gene mutations, but just how these mutations contribute to the cause of melanomas has been a mystery.

A new clue comes from researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Schools of Medicine and Public Health. Their research indicates that early life sun exposure, from birth to 20 years old, may specifically increase the risk of melanomas with BRAF gene mutations. A different mutation, on the NRAS gene, was found in patients who had sun exposure during the later part of life (between ages 50 to 60 years old). The results indicate that different subtypes of melanoma are linked to different risk factors.

"The findings suggest that melanoma subtypes have different causes. This is important for learning more about how to prevent and treat skin cancer," said Dr. Nancy Thomas, associate professor of dermatology in the UNC School of Medicine, a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and lead author of the study. This finding is expected to strengthen current recommendations to protect children from sun exposure in order to prevent melanoma, Thomas said.

The study, reported in the May 2007 edition of the journal Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, presents some of the first data to link early life sunlight exposure to a specific mutation in melanomas.........

Posted by: George      Read more         Source


June 6, 2007, 10:01 PM CT

New Contributor To Aggressive Cancers

New Contributor To Aggressive Cancers
Mutations in the cell adhesion molecule known as integrin alpha 7 (integrin 7) lead to unchecked tumor cell proliferation and a significantly higher incidence in cancer spread, or metastasis, in several cancer cell lines, report scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in a study being published recently in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. These findings suggest that integrin 7 represents an important new target for cancer treatment and prevention.

Integrin 7 belongs to a major class of cell membrane proteins that play a role in the attachment of a cell to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the material that holds cells within a particular type of tissue together. Integrins also help cells attach to one another and are involved in transmitting chemical signals between cells and the ECM.

In this study, the researchers, led by Jianhua Luo, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor in the division of molecular and cellular pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, examined whether this gene is mutated in specimens of various human cancers as well as whether the level of integrin 7 expression is linked to clinical relapse of human cancers. They also investigated whether integrin 7 has tumor suppressor activity.

To determine whether mutations in integrin 7 contribute to cancer, Dr. Luo and his collaborators sequenced the integrin 7 genes from 66 human cancer specimens and cell lines representing many different kinds of cancer, including cancer of the prostate, liver, brain (glioblastoma) and muscle (leiomyosarcoma).........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


June 6, 2007, 10:00 PM CT

Colonoscopy up in NYC

Colonoscopy up in NYC
More New Yorkers are getting life-saving colonoscopies than ever before, the Health Department announced recently, and people of all races and incomes are benefiting. The test which can detect, prevent, or cure colorectal cancer is generally recommended once every decade for people 50 and older, and earlier for those with a family history of the disease. Four years ago, only 43% of New Yorkers age 50 and older had been screened during the prior decade. Health officials will announce today that 60% of New Yorkers 50 and older had a colonoscopy in the past ten years, an increase of some 350,000 tests compared with 2003. The announcement is being made at the 4th Annual Citywide Colon Cancer Control Coalition (C5) summit at the American Conference Centers (780 Third Avenue, between 48th & 49th Streets).

In 2003, we set a five year goal to increase the percent of New Yorkers 50 and older who have been screened for colon cancer to 60%, said Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. Im proud to report that weve reached that goal two years ahead of schedule. Since 2003, colonoscopies increased among New Yorkers of all races, ethnicities, income level and insurance status. That means across the board more cancers will be prevented, and lives will be saved.

While whites were more likely than either blacks or Hispanics to have had a colonoscopy in 2003, the three groups screening rates were nearly equal in 2006, just four years later. More people are getting colonoscopies to prevent or find early colon cancer and it is saving lives, said Health Commissioner Dr. Thomas R. Frieden. The health gap for screening for this important cancer is closing. Weve accomplished a great deal, but we have more to do. We want to increase the colon cancer screening level to more than 80% of New Yorkers over 50 in the next 5 years.........

Posted by: Sue      Read more         Source


June 6, 2007, 9:50 PM CT

Talcum powder stunts growth of lung tumors

Talcum powder stunts growth of lung tumors
Image courtesy of ubeaut.com.au
Talcum powder has been used for generations to soothe babies diaper rash and freshen womens faces. But University of Florida scientists report the household product has an additional healing power: The ability to stunt cancer growth by cutting the flow of blood to metastatic lung tumors.

The study, reported in the European Respiratory Journal in April, reveals that talc stimulates healthy cells to produce endostatin, a hormone considered the magic bullet for treating metastatic lung cancer. The UF scientists say talc is an exciting new therapeutic agent for a cancer largely considered incurable.

We found, to our surprise, that talc causes tumor growth to slow down and actually decreases the tumor bulk, said Veena Antony, M.D., a professor of pulmonary medicine and chief of pulmonary and critical care medicine at UFs College of Medicine. Talc is able to prevent the formation of blood vessels, thereby killing the tumor and choking off its growth. The tumors appeared to grow much slower and in some cases completely disappeared.

Researchers have only recently discovered that talcum powder stunts tumor growth, though the mineral has been used for almost 70 years to treat the respiratory problems that accompany metastatic lung cancer. About half of all patients accumulate fluid around the surface of the lungs, a condition known as cancerous pleural effusion.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


June 5, 2007, 0:24 AM CT

Diagnosing skin cancers with light, not scalpels

Diagnosing skin cancers with light, not scalpels
In an early step toward nonsurgical screening for cancerous skin cancers, Duke University chemists have demonstrated a laser-based system that can capture three-dimensional images of the chemical and structural changes under way beneath the surface of human skin.

"The standard way physicians do a diagnosis now is to cut out a mole and look at a slice of it with a microscope," said Warren Warren, the James B. Duke Professor of chemistry, radiology and biomedical engineering, and director of Duke's new Center for Molecular and Biomedical Imaging. "What we're trying to do is find cancer signals they can get to without having to cut out the mole.

"This is the first approach that can target molecules like hemoglobin and melanin and get microscopic resolution images the equivalent of what a doctor would see if he or she were able to slice down to that particular point," Warren said.

The distributions of hemoglobin, a component of red blood cells, and melanin, a skin pigment, serve as early warning signs for skin cancer growth. But because skin scatters light strongly, simple microscopes cannot be used to locate those molecules except right at the surface. Eventhough laser methods have been developed to probe deeper down for some other molecules that can be made to glow, both melanin and hemoglobin remain dark and inaccessible using those methods.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


June 5, 2007, 0:12 AM CT

African-American men understimate risk of prostate cancer

African-American men understimate risk of prostate cancer
A number of African-American men radically underestimate the likelihood that having a needle biopsy for suspected prostate cancer will result in a cancer diagnosis, as per a research studyfrom the University of Chicago Medical Center.

The researchers, who presented their results at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting in Chicago, say this is alarming. African-American men have a higher incidence rate, are diagnosed later, and have a higher mortality rate from prostate cancer than Caucasians.

"A group that underestimates the risk of having cancer is likely to underestimate the value of early detection and thus skip the whole process," said study author William Dale, MD, PhD, assistant professor of medicine/geriatrics at the University of Chicago, "which may explain, in part, why African-American men are so often diagnosed later and thus have worse outcomes".

Dale and his colleagues collected data on what 243 patients expected from their biopsies and their anxiety levels while waiting in a urology clinic. The average age of these patients was 63. Almost 40 percent of the men were African-American. Fifty-six percent had at least a college education level.

Despite being referred for biopsy because they were known to be at increased risk for prostate cancer, commonly due to a blood test, 55 percent of the African-American men at the time of prostate biopsy said they had a zero percent chance of having prostate cancer (i.e. that it was impossible). Only 20 percent of the Caucasian men said this.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


May 31, 2007, 11:43 PM CT

vitamin B6. B12 and folate, may decrease pancreatic cancer risk

vitamin B6. B12 and folate, may decrease pancreatic cancer risk
Scientists exploring the notion that certain nutrients might protect against pancreas cancer observed that lean individuals who got most of these nutrients from food were protected against developing cancer. The study also suggests this protective effect does not hold true if the nutrients come from vitamin supplements.

As per a research findings reported in the June 1 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, researchers combined data from four large studies and observed that people who were at or below normal body weight decreased their risk for developing pancreas cancer if they took in high levels of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate from food. The study determined that their risk was 81 percent, 73 percent, and 59 percent lower, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate respectively, compared with participants who did not eat as much of these nutrients or who weighed more. As per the researchers, that was the only statistically significant finding from the study, which is the largest yet to look at these nutrients and pancreas cancer risk.

All we can say is that a person who has reason to be concerned about their risk of developing this cancer, which is relatively rare but quite deadly, should maintain a normal weight and eat their fruit and vegetables, said the studys lead investigator, Eva Schernhammer, M.D., Dr.P.H., an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.........

Posted by: Sue      Read more         Source


May 31, 2007, 11:42 PM CT

Cigarette smoke alters DNA in sperm

Cigarette smoke alters DNA in sperm
The science has long been clear that smoking causes cancer, but new research shows that children could inherit genetic damage from a father who smokes.

Canadian scientists have demonstrated in mice that smoking can cause changes in the DNA sequence of sperm cells, alterations that could potentially be inherited by offspring. The results of their study are reported in the June 1 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Here we are looking at male germline mutations, which are mutations in the DNA of sperm. If inherited, these mutations persist as irreversible changes in the genetic composition of off-spring. said Carole Yauk, Ph.D., lead author of the study and research scientist in the Mutagenesis Section of Health Canadas Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division. We have known that mothers who smoke can harm their fetuses, and here we show evidence that fathers can potentially damage offspring long before they may even meet their future mate.

Males, whether they are mouse or man, generate a constant supply of new sperm from self-renewing spermatogonial stem cells. Yauk, along with colleagues at Health Canada and.

McMaster University, studied the spermatogonial stem cells of mature mice that had been exposed to cigarette smoke for either six or 12 weeks to look for alterations in a specific stretch of repeated portions of DNA, called Ms6-hm, which does not contain any known genes. The smoking mice were exposed to two cigarettes per day, the equivalent based on blood levels of tobacco by-products of an average human smoker, as per research previously published by one of the study's co-authors.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source



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Cancer
Cancer is a very common disease, approximately one out of every two American men and one out of every three American women will have some type of cancer at some point during the course of their life. Cancer is more common in the elderly and 77 percent of cancers occur in people above age 55 or older. Cancer is also common in children. Cancer incidence is said to have two peaks once during early childhood and then during late years in life. No age period is completely exempted from development of cancers. Some cancers occur predominantly in the elderly, other types occur in children, Cancer occurs in all ethnic races, however the cancer rates and rates of specific cancer types may vary from group to group. Late stages of cancer may be incurable in most cases, but with the advancement of medicine, more and more cancers are becoming curable.

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