February 25, 2008, 8:58 PM CT
Many Stroke, Heart Attack Patients May Not Benefit from Aspirin
Up to 20 percent of patients taking aspirin to lower the risk of suffering a second cerebrovascular event do not have an antiplatelet response from aspirin, the effect thought to produce the protective effect, scientists at the University at Buffalo have shown.
"Millions of people use low-dose aspirin either for prevention of a second stroke, second heart attack or second episode of peripheral artery disease," said Francis M. Gengo, Pharm.D., lead researcher on the study.
Gengo is professor of neurology in the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and professor of pharmacy practice in the UB School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.
"In those three indications, it's crystal clear that aspirin reduces the risk of a second heart attack or stroke in most patients. But we have known for years that in some stroke and heart attack patients, aspirin has no preventive effect".
With no definitive data on the frequency of this condition, known as aspirin resistance, physicians were left with a best guess of between 5 and 50 percent, said Gengo.
UB scientists now have confirmed the 20 percent figure through a strictly controlled study conducted over 29 months in 653 consecutive stroke patients seen at Dent Neurologic Institute offices in the Buffalo suburbs Amherst and Orchard Park.........
Posted by: Daniel Read more Source
February 25, 2008, 8:54 PM CT
Women With HIV Want To Become Pregnant
About one in four women who have tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) expect pregnancy and motherhood to be a part of their future, recent research suggests.
A woman's age at the time she learns of her HIV status appears to influence this decision. Women in an Ohio State University study who learned of their HIV infection when they were under age 30 were almost four times more likely to say they wanted to become pregnant than were women who were over 30 when they learned they had HIV.
Scientists say the findings point to a need for clinicians to be aware that women with HIV might be struggling with decisions about motherhood - a relatively new phenomenon accompanying the increase in HIV-positive women of childbearing age and the longer survival rates among patients who receive therapy.
"We shouldn't assume that women aren't going to become pregnant or don't want to become pregnant now that they have HIV. That's an erroneous assumption," said co-author of study Julianne Serovich, professor and chair of human development and family science at Ohio State. "Clinicians should be routinely discussing pregnancy with HIV-positive women of childbearing age".
In 2005, 29.5 percent of all new reported HIV infections and 27 percent of new AIDS cases in the United States were among women, as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty years earlier, only 5 percent of new AIDS cases were reported in women. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.........
Posted by: Mark Read more Source
February 24, 2008, 10:12 PM CT
Empty Nest Syndrome May Not Be Bad After All,
One day they are crawling, the next day they are driving and then suddenly they aren't kids anymore. As children reach adulthood, the parent-child relationship changes as parents learn to adapt to newly independent children. A new study by a University of Missouri professor explored the differences in how mothers and fathers interacted with their young adult children. She found there were few differences in the way mothers and fathers felt and that a number of of the changes were positive, despite the perception that mothers in particular fall apart and experience the so-called empty nest syndrome.
"As children age, direct caretaking and influence diminish, and children are often seen by their parents as peers with whom they are have continuing relationships," said Christine Proulx, assistant professor of human development and family studies in the College of Human Environmental Sciences. "Eventhough our between-families results suggest these patterns of change and continuity differ by parent and child gender, our within-family analyses suggest important similarities among mothers and fathers within the same family."
Of most concern to the parents in the study were firstborns' independence, time spent together and role patterns. The study observed that generally fathers and mothers reported similar changes in the parent-child relationship during their child's movements into young adulthood. Both fathers and mothers reported differences in independence/maturity of the child, closeness/openness in the relationship, contact/time spent together and changes in role pattern.........
Posted by: Janet Read more Source
February 24, 2008, 10:06 PM CT
Children Who Do Not Get Enough Sleep
Lack of adequate sleep can lead to increased injuries among preschool children, new research shows. This study published in Public Health Nursing shows that the average number of injuries during the preschool years is two times higher for children who don't get enough sleep each day as described by their mothers.
Each year approximately 20-25 percent of all children in the United States sustain injuries that require medical attention. Childhood injury is one of the 10 Leading Health Indicators being tracked over the next 10 years by the U.S. Public Health Service.
Christina Koulouglioti, Ph.D., R.N., and his colleagues, Dr R.Cole & Dr H.Kitzman, of the University of Rochester School of Nursing collected data from nearly 300 mothers and their preschool children over the course of 2 ½ years. Mothers reported on their child's sleep, and data on injuries were collected through self-report and medical records. The study was funded by the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
The study found a direct negative relationship between children's sleep and injuries. Children who get an adequate amount of sleep sustain fewer injuries. The National Sleep Foundation recommends that children three to six years of age get 11 hours or more of sleep a day.........
Posted by: JoAnn Read more Source
February 24, 2008, 9:52 PM CT
Obesity and risk of stroke
Middle-aged women's waists aren't the only thing that increased in the last decade. So did their chance of stroke. In a new study reported at the American Stroke Association's International Stroke Conference 2008, rising obesity rates have been associated with more strokes among women aged 35 to 54.
A prior analysis of stroke prevalence rates in the United States from 1999 to 2004 revealed that women in their midlife years were more than twice as likely as men of similar age to report having had a stroke, said Amytis Towfighi, M.D., an assistant professor in the Neurology Department at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, Calif.
To determine if this was a new phenomenon and to explore the potential contributions of vascular risk factors to stroke prevalence rates, scientists analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and 1999-2004. Scientists observed that while 1.79 percent of women ages 35 to 54 who participated in NHANES reported having stroke, only 0.63 percent of women the same ages who participated in the earlier survey (NHANES III), reported stroke.
The analysis compared medical history variables (including smoking, diabetes mellitus, heart attack, high blood pressure), medicine usage, and clinical markers among women in NHANES III and 1999-2004. Clinical markers reviewed included waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), also known as bad cholesterol), and blood pressure.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
February 24, 2008, 9:49 PM CT
Novel method to reveal drug targets
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute researchers have developed a new large-scale method to identify the interactions between proteins that are a major target for therapeutic intervention. The novel method can identify the weak, short-lived interactions that are characteristic of cell responses to cues from the environment or from within the body.
Cell surface proteins are targets for a number of drugs and are central to a number of processes of cell regulation, such as some cancer therapeutics, diabetes, and growth. The team hope the method will uncover a number of important interactions that are invisible to current detection methods.
A number of proteins act as molecular switches, responding to signals and activating specific genes or specific cell processes. Using biochemical tricks to increase the chances of detecting the transient and weak, but potentially important, interactions, the researchers describe 17 new pairs of interactions in mammalian cells.
"If a genome is the code for life, interactions between proteins are the communications system - the internet of our bodies," Explains Dr Gavin Wright, Junior Investigator at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "The challenge we face is that current methods cannot efficiently detect interactions at the place where communication starts: the cell surface, nor can they reliably detect transient weak interactions.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
February 24, 2008, 9:38 PM CT
Optimal care for inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent gastrointestinal disease. The disease has a relatively higher morbidity in young adults, in whom growth, education, employment and wellbeing all are adversely influenced. Many guidelines for management of inflammatory bowel disease are available for bringing evidence-based medicine into full play to improve IBD patient care. What about the actual quality of care for patients with IBD in China?
An article would be published on January 28, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question. The research team led by Dr. Jian-Min Si from Zhejiang University, China, conducted a retrospective review of medical treatment for a hospital based-cohort of patients with IBD, involving 71 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 106 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Medical treatment including use of oral aminosalicylates, topical treatment, corticosteroid agents and immunomodulatory agents were analyzed.
This article reported that all the patients with ulcerative colitis received optimal doses of aminosalicylate while 39.7% patients with ileal or colonic CD were suboptimal dosed. The occurence rate of suboptimal dose of aminosalicylate was significantly higher in CD patients with small intestine involvement only. This phenomenon may be explained by the relatively lower occurence rate of CD than that of UC in China and therefore less understanding of this disease.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
February 24, 2008, 9:36 PM CT
5-fluorouracil in colonic neoplasm?
5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a common chemotherapeutical drug. It exerts its antitumor effect through competitive thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition. Thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyses deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate (dUMP) to 2-deoxythymydine-5-monophosphate (dTMP). It is the only de novo source of thymidylate, an essential precursor of DNA biosynthesis. In the 5-untranslated region of TS gene, there a unique tandem repeated sequence. There are three predominant genotypes of TS: (1) Homozygous with two tandem repeats (2R/2R); (2) homozygous with three tandem repeats (3R/3R); (3) heterozygous with both alleles (2R/3R). It was reported that TS genes with the triple repeats have higher expression activity than those with double repeats in vitro and in vivo.
The critical role of TS in nucleotide metabolism has made it an important target for cancer chemotherapy. Intratumoral TS protein expression before the chemoradiation therapy has been observed to inversely correlate with the response to 5-FU chemotherapy. Patients with low TS levels have better clinical outcome than those with high TS levels. Detecting the intratumoral TS levels is important for patients who are going to receive 5-FU-based chemotherapy, as these can be used to forecast the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, the classical assay for TS-activity determination (high-performance liquid chromatography with output monitored by radioactive flow detector) is tedious and expensive. A simple way to detect the TS levels is necessary. A research article would be published on January 28, 2008 in the World Journal of Gastroenterology addresses this question.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
February 20, 2008, 8:04 AM CT
Cancer deaths down but
New data revealing decreasing trends in cancer deaths in the United States overall, and in colorectal cancer deaths in particular, highlight the remarkable benefits of colorectal cancer screening tests, but the lifesaving potential of these tests is unrealized for a number of Americans as per experts from the American College of Gastroenterology. Racial minorities, uninsured Americans and even Medicare patients who should be tested are not being screening appropriately, and other recent studies reveal that they are diagnosed with more advanced cancers in comparison to patients with private insurance.
Today, the American Cancer Society reported a downward trend in cancer deaths between 2004 and 2005. Deaths from cancer of the colon and rectum decreased from 1998 to 2004 among both men and women, as per ACS. The report attributes early detection to this sharp decline in colon cancer deaths. Early detection of colorectal cancer, when it is most treatable, directly results in improved survival, exceeding 90 percent when detected at the earliest stage.
As per ACG President Amy E. Foxx-Orenstein, D.O., FACG, The good news is that colorectal cancer deaths are down, but marked differences in the experience of colorectal cancer, its impact on quality of life, and death rates are seen between whites and blacks, and between the uninsured, and even those with health coverage under Medicare and Medicaid. As per Dr. Foxx-Orenstein, The American College of Gastroenterology is committed to national policy changes to improve access to colorectal screening and increased use of these proven prevention strategies, including reversing Medicares massive cuts to reimbursement for these tests since the benefit was first introduced, as well as to payments in ambulatory surgery centers where a number of screening tests are performed.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
February 17, 2008, 10:42 PM CT
Addressing global obesity epidemic
As per Rena Wing, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and director of the Weight Control & Diabetes Research Center at The Miriam Hospital, people who are most successful in preventing weight gain, and dieters who lose weight and keep the pounds off, have made major changes in their in diet and exercise routines.
Using new research findings, Wing will make her case for big behavioral changes to stave off weight gain at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the worlds largest general scientific society.
At the meeting, held in Boston, Wing takes part in a Feb. 17, 2008 symposium titled Fighting the Global Obesity Epidemic: Small Steps or Big Changes" The symposium runs from 8:30 to 10:00 a.m. in Room 208 of the Hynes Convention Center. Wing will also attend a Feb. 17, 2008 press briefing on the topic of childhood obesity and nutrition. The briefing kicks off at 11 a.m. in Room 212 of the Hynes Convention Center.
We live in an obesogenic environment that relies heavily on fast food, automobiles, and remote controls all which can be labeled as toxic to maintaining a healthy body weight, Wing said. With our research, we want to determine the most successful strategies for maintaining a nor-mal weight in this toxic environment. Weve observed that bigger changes are needed for success.........
Posted by: JoAnn Read more Source