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December 5, 2006, 9:16 PM CT

how caring sentiments can affect business sense

how caring sentiments can affect business sense
Imagine you are selling a used car on eBay. You will demand a higher price for the car if your toddler is sitting on your lap, says surprising new research from the recent issue of the Journal of Consumer Research. Scientists from the University of Toronto observed that simply thinking about a personal relationship causes sellers to set a higher price, even if the relationship is not directly correlation to the transaction.

"Relationships are like the lenses that guide our view, not just in that particular relationship or with the relationship partner, but in other unrelated circumstances as well," says Pankaj Aggarwal, who authored the piece with doctoral student Meng Zhang.

The study is the first to examine how relationships affect our feelings of loss aversion. When selling an item we own, we tend to demand a price that is higher than what we are willing to pay for it. Personal interactions cause us to feel like parting with the item would be more of a loss by evoking sentiments about how the value of an item is more than just monetary and thus leading to a higher asking price.

"This research has some important implications, not just for marketing managers, but also for consumers," write the authors.

They explain, "The next time you are negotiating with a person when buying a used car, it might be worthwhile not to call him at home calling him at work may get you a better price!".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 5, 2006, 8:09 PM CT

Cause Of Cancer Drug Side Effect

Cause Of Cancer Drug Side Effect This figure shows where gefinitib first comes into contact with the transporter ABCG2
St. Jude Children's Research Hospita
A troublesome side effect caused by some cancer drugs appears to be caused by a broken "pump" in the liver that fails to push these medicines into a "drain," as per researchers at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital. The finding offers clinicians a way to identify patients who are likely to develop diarrhea as a side effect from taking these drugs, the scientists said.

The discovery also has implications for people taking other drugs, since this pump controls the blood levels of a number of of the prescription drugs on the market. This study is the first to show that a specific gene mutation disables the pumpa protein called ABCG2preventing it from disposing of these drugs. The mutation, a type of alteration called a single nucleotide polymorphism, is designated 421C>A in reference to the specific change in one of the DNA building blocks of the gene.

ABCG2 pushes drugs out of cells and back into the blood, or in the case of the liver, the pump pushes drugs into a tube-like structure called the bile canaliculum, which eventually leads to the intestine, from which it is excreted, as per the researchers. ABCG2 also pumps drugs out of the cells lining the intestine, preventing drugs taken by mouth from flooding into the body. Once past the intestine, blood vessels pick up the drugs and bring them to the liver and other parts of the body.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


December 5, 2006, 7:41 PM CT

Perception Of Overweight And Obesity

Perception Of Overweight And Obesity
Overweight black Americans are two to three times more likely than heavy white Americans to say they are of average weight even after being diagnosed as overweight or obese by their doctors, as per a research studyled by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers.

Weight "misperception" was most common among black men and women, and also was found among Hispanic men (but not women) in comparison to their white counterparts. The findings, which appear in the current online issue of the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, are significant as excess body weight is a known risk factor for diabetes, heart disease, a number of forms of cancer, and premature death.

Growing concern over the national obesity epidemic in recent years apparently has not significantly increased overweight blacks recognition of their excess pounds, said Gary G. Bennett, PhD, of Dana-Farbers Center for Community-Based Research and Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, lead author of the study.

The report by Bennett and Kathleen Y. Wolin, ScD of Northwestern University is based on an analysis of data collected in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a government-sponsored research study begun in the 1960s. It includes both interviews and physical examinations carried out by mobile units across the country.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 5, 2006, 4:53 AM CT

chlorpyrifos exposure in pregnancy

chlorpyrifos exposure in pregnancy
Children who were exposed prenatally to the insecticide chlorpyrifos had significantly poorer mental and motor development by three years of age and increased risk for behavior problems, as per a peer-evaluated study published recently by the American Academy of Pediatrics in its journal, Pediatrics. Chlorpyrifos, which was banned for residential use in 2001, is still widely applied to agricultural crops in the U.S. and abroad, including a number of fruits and vegetables.

The study assessed development of approximately 250 inner-city children from New York City who were born between 1998 and 2002. By age three, the children with the highest levels of chlorpyrifos at birth (upper 20th percentile) had significantly worse mental development and poorer motor skills than children with lower exposure levels. The more highly exposed children were also more likely by age three to exhibit early indications of behavior and attention problems. The study was co-authored by scientists from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, and from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlorpyrifos not only increases the likelihood of developmental delay, but may have long-term consequences for social adjustment and academic achievement" said lead author and investigator on the study, Virginia Rauh, ScD. "Relatively speaking, the insecticide effects reported here are comparable to what has been seen with exposures to other neurotoxicants such as lead and tobacco smoke".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 5, 2006, 4:48 AM CT

How Movement Lubricates Bone Joints

How Movement Lubricates Bone Joints Flexing Joints in the Lab
Credit: UC San Dieg
Taking a cue from machines that gently flex patients knees to help them recover faster from joint surgery, bioengineering scientists at UC San Diego have shown that sliding forces applied to cartilage surfaces prompt cells in that tissue to produce molecules that lubricate and protect joints.

The results reported in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage are important in the ongoing efforts of the group led by Robert Sah, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) professor at UCSDs Jacobs School of Engineering, to grow cartilage in the laboratory that can be used to replace patients injured or diseased joint surfaces.

We have shown that shear forces on cartilage prompt chondrocyte cells in it to produce proteoglycan 4, said Sah. This is an important step toward our goal of eventually growing joint tissue for transplantation.

Proteoglycan, a name that reflects its protein and polysaccharide components, is a basic building block of connective tissue throughout the body. The chondrocyte cells of cartilage make several forms of proteoglycans, including several that build up in cartilage and contribute to its stiffness. However, proteoglycan-4 is primarily secreted into the joint fluid where it coats and lubricates cartilage surfaces.

Researchers have known for years that defects in a gene for proteoglycan 4 result in a type of childhood joint failure that resembles osteoarthritis in the elderly. Sahs goal is to stimulate healthy chondrocytes in cartilage tissue grown in the laboratory to form robust tissue that makes proteoglycan 4 and has a smooth, well-lubricated surface.........

Posted by: Mark      Permalink         Source


December 5, 2006, 4:31 AM CT

Uterine Preservation In Treating Fibroids

Uterine Preservation In Treating Fibroids
Eventhough fibroidsnon-malignant tumors that grow in the uteruscan cause pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding and infertility, women of childbearing age often choose to forego therapy because the available therapy options dont guarantee fertility.

In a study in the recent issue of The Female Patient, physicians at.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia present a case history of a 35-year-old women whose numerous fibroids formed a large mass in her pelvic area that, when initially diagnosed, was of a size comparable to a full-term pregnancy.

"Traditionally, therapy for such a large fibroid mass in the uterus has been limited to hysterectomy, because the patient would bleed extensively if an attempt was made to merely remove the fibroids." says Jay Goldberg, M.D., MSCP, lead author and director of the Jefferson Fibroid Center at Thomas Jefferson University. "In this particular case though, hysterectomy was not an option because the patient strongly desired future fertility and uterine preservation".

To meet the patients wishes and remove the fibroids, the physicians developed a plan to perform two procedures a month apart.

The Jefferson physicians first performed a uterine fibroid embolization (UFE), a minimally invasive radiologic procedure that blocks the arteries that supply blood to the fibroid tumors. The procedure was done to reduce the blood flow within the patients uterus and the risk of hemorrhaging at the time of surgery.........

Posted by: Emily      Permalink         Source


December 4, 2006, 9:57 PM CT

Implant Measures Tumor Growth

Implant Measures Tumor Growth nanoparticles tailored to detect a particular molecule
Image courtesy / Cima research group
A tiny implant now being developed at MIT could one day help doctors rapidly monitor the growth of tumors and the progress of chemotherapy in cancer patients.

The implant contains nanoparticles that can be designed to test for different substances, including metabolites such as glucose and oxygen that are linked to tumor growth. It can also track the effects of cancer drugs: Once inside a patient, the implant could reveal how much of a certain cancer drug has reached the tumor, helping doctors determine whether a therapy is working in a particular patient.

"You really want to have some sort of rapid measure of whether it's working or not, or whether you should go on to the next (drug)," said Michael Cima, the Sumitomo Electric Industries Professor of Engineering in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and the leader of the research team.

Such nanoparticles have been used before, but for the first time, the MIT scientists have encased the nanoparticles in a silicone delivery device, allowing them to remain in patients' bodies for an extended period of time. The device can be implanted directly into a tumor, allowing scientists to get a more direct look at what is happening in the tumor over time.

With blood testing, which is now usually used to track chemotherapy progress, it's hard to tell if cancer drugs are reaching their intended targets, says Grace Kim, a graduate student in the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and one of the scientists working on the implant. That's because the system of blood vessels surrounding tumors is complicated, and you can't trust that drugs present in the blood have also reached the tumor, as per Kim.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


December 3, 2006, 9:13 PM CT

Gene Therapy For Erectile Dysfunction

Gene Therapy For Erectile Dysfunction
The first human trial of gene transfer treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) indicates that gene treatment that lasts for months and eliminates the patient's need for on-demand drugs (such as Viagra and Cialis), could become the future therapy of choice for this common problem, as per a paper in the most recent issue of Human Gene Therapy.

Lead author Arnold Melman, M.D., professor and chair of the Department of Urology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center, says, "This is an exciting field of research because current therapys for men with erectile dysfunction, whether pills or minimally invasive therapies, must be used 'on demand', thereby reducing the spontaneity of the sexual act." .

Erectile dysfunction affects more than 50 percent of men aged 40 to70 and 70 percent above age 70, as per the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.

Dr. Melman and two study centers worked with 11 men and administered various doses of a transfer gene called hMaxi-K. "While this phase 1 safety trial was not designed to provide efficacy answers, one patient in each of the higher dose groups (5000 and 7500 micrograms) reported clinically significant and sustained improvements in ED. And, there have been no adverse effects with the patients in the study, so it has been proven to be safe," he adds.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


December 3, 2006, 9:08 PM CT

Treating obesity vital for public health

Treating obesity vital for public health
Physicians who once treated mainly elderly patients for health problems such as diabetes, heart disease and stroke are seeing increasingly younger patients who have the same ailments.

A review in the recent issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings focuses on the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a state characterized by cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and abnormal levels of glucose (sugar) and fats in the blood. Authors Lewis Johnson, M.D., and Ruth Weinstock, M.D., Ph.D., of SUNY Upstate Medical University in Syracuse, N.Y., say physicians and public institutions must work in tandem to curb the obesity epidemic.

"Unfortunately, as the population becomes less active and more obese, we're seeing a rise in this constellation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease," says Dr. Weinstock, chief of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the university. "That's of great concern because of the increased risk for heart attack, stroke and diabetes, and we're seeing this occur in younger and younger individuals".

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability among adults in the United States. The number of U.S. adults who are overweight or obese increased from 47 percent of the adult population in 19761980 to 65 percent in 19992002.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 3, 2006, 8:32 PM CT

Parenting a child with an eating disorder

Parenting a child with an eating disorder
Parenting a child with an eating disorder - monitoring meals, friends and activities - can be a full-time job. But two new studies from scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital indicate a need for increased vigilance in two key areas: Internet use among adolescents with the condition, and pre-teen weight loss in seemingly healthy children.

One study, would be reported in the recent issue of Pediatrics, is the first to confirm that pro-eating disorder Web sites may promote dangerous behaviors in adolescents with eating disorders. The second, which appears in the recent issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health, indicates that pre-teens with eating disorders tend to lose weight more quickly than adolescents with the condition and weigh comparatively less at diagnosis. Packard Children's adolescent medicine and eating disorder specialist Rebecka Peebles, MD, and Jenny Wilson, a Stanford medical student, collaborated on both studies.

"If parents wouldn't let their kids go out to dinner or talk on the phone with someone they don't know, they should ask themselves what their child might be up to on the computer," Peebles, a medical school pediatrics instructor, said of the findings in the first study. She pointed out that, unlike adults, teens make few distinctions between "real" friends and people they know only online.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source



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Did you know?
Studies in monkeys and women suggest that unlike traditional estrogen therapy, a diet high in the natural plant estrogens found in soy does not increase the risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women, according to Mark Cline, D.V.M., Ph.D., an associate professor of comparative medicine at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

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