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August 8, 2007, 9:35 PM CT
Drink Milk to Gain Muscle And Lose Fat
Part of a research study that's ongoing into the impact of drinking milk after heavy weightlifting has observed that milk helps exercisers burn more fat.
The study by scientists at McMaster University and published recently in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, was conducted by the Department of Kinesiologys Exercise Metabolism Research Group, lead by Stuart Phillips.
The scientists took three groups of young men 18 to 30 years of age 56 in total and put them through a rigorous, five-day-per-week weightlifting program over a 12-week period. Following their workouts, study participants drank either two cups of skim milk, a soy beverage with equivalent amounts of protein and energy, or a carbohydrate beverage with an equivalent amount of energy, which was roughly the same as drinking 600 to 700 milliliters of a typical sports drink.
Upon the studys conclusion, scientists observed that the milk drinking group had lost nearly twice as much fat - two pounds - while the carbohydrate beverage group lost one pound of fat. Those drinking soy lost no fat. At the same time, the gain in muscle was much greater among the milk drinkers than either the soy or carbohydrate beverage study participants.
The loss of fat mass, while expected, was much larger than we thought it would be, says Phillips, associate professor of kinesiology at McMaster. I think the practical implications of these results are obvious: if you want to gain muscle and lose fat as a result of working out, drink milk.........
Posted by: Janet Read more Source
August 8, 2007, 9:25 PM CT
Studying Brain Blood Flow to Treat Depression
The usefulness of established molecular imaging/nuclear medicine approaches in identifying the "hows" and "whys" of brain dysfunction and its potential in providing immediately useful information in treating depression are emphasized in a study in the August Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
"Individuals in a depressed emotional state have impaired cerebral (brain) blood flow," explained Omer Bonne, head of inpatient psychiatry and associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. "Clinical improvement in depression is accompanied by diverse changes in cerebral blood flow, as per whether patients are treated with medicine or electroconvulsive therapy," he noted. "We observed that antidepressant medicines normalized decreased brain blood flow commonly seen in patients with depression, while electroconvulsive therapy was linked to additional decreases in blood flow," he reported. "Currently, clinical psychiatry is based almost solely on subjective observer-based judgment. Our findings suggest that objective imaging evaluations could support subjective clinical decisions," he said.
Using SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)-a molecular imaging/nuclear medicine procedure in which injected radiotracers are utilized to produce three-dimensional, computer-reconstructed images that reveal information about both structure and function-researchers confirmed already published findings that cerebral blood flow in depressed patients is lower than in healthy control subjects, particularly in frontal, limbic and subcortical brain regions. "We wanted to see whether improvement in clinical depression is accompanied by changes-increases-in cerebral blood flow," he said. "We observed that cerebral blood flow increased only in patients whose depression improved. In contrast, cerebral blood flow remained unchanged in patients whose depressed condition persisted," detailed Bonne.........
Posted by: Daniel Read more Source
August 8, 2007, 8:04 PM CT
Inflammation may cause preterm labor
Inflammation from bacterial infections is associated with preterm births and deaths, as per scientists from Case Western Reserve Universitys School of Dental Medicine and the Case School of Medicine. They found if receptors responding to the presence of dead or living bacteria in the placentas of mice can be blocked, the number of preterm deaths will decline by nearly half.
Yiping Han along with Hongqi Lui from the Case Western Reserve dental school and Raymond Redline from the Case medical school report results from their investigation, TLR4 promotes F. nucleatum-induced fetal death in mice, in the Journal of Immunology.
New findings from the mouse study holds potential to develop ways to curb the emotional and economic toll on families that lose babies to preterm labor and fetal death, said Han, a member of from the department of periodontics.
Currently antibiotic therapys are not very effective at preventing preterm births that are triggered by a bacterial infection. Mice, as well as humans, have several toll-like receptors (TLR) that sense the surface components of living or dead bacteria. TLR2 and 4 are key receptors in recognizing bacterial surfaces. The researchers concentrated their study on these two receptors as a possible link in producing the inflammatory response that is believed to have brought about the fetal death in mice.........
Posted by: Emily Read more Source
August 8, 2007, 7:53 PM CT
Cardio Exercise Benefits In Male Vs. Female Hearts
While cardiovascular disease occurs in both men and women, it does not affect them in the same way. Risk factors and protective factors for heart diseases are likewise unequal. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences are so far unknown, but some believe it is due to chromosomal linked genes or sexual hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. While the mechanisms behind the differences are unknown, the physiological differences are clear. A new study examining chronic exercise in male and female mice finds that moderate long-term exercise provokes a sex-dependent cardiac adaptation that is different for females versus males. The findings may eventually help improve therapy strategies for women and men with heart disease.
The study is entitled "Voluntary Exercise Induces Sex-Specific Physiological Cardiac Remodeling." It was conduced by Sebastian Brokat, Kathleen Cantow, Nadine Ehrenberg, Arne Kuhne, Jenny Thomas, and Vera Regitz-Zagrosek, all of the Center for Cardiovascular Research in Berlin, Gera number of. Dr. Brokat will discuss his team's findings at the upcoming conference, Sex and Gender in Cardiovascular-Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology, being held August 9-12, 2007 at the Hyatt Regency Austin on Town Lake in Austin, TX. The meeting is the second scientific event to be sponsored by the American Physiological Society (APS; www.The-APS.org) this year.........
Posted by: Daniel Read more Source
August 8, 2007, 7:38 PM CT
Newl Pathway for Increasing HDL Cholesterol
Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have discovered that a group of liver enzymes called proprotein convertases (PCs) may be the key to raising levels of good cholesterol (HDL-C). The pathway by which these proteins are able to achieve an increase in HDL cholesterol involves another enzyme that normally degrades HDL-C, and was also discovered at Penn. The newly recognized relationship between these enzymes and cholesterol represents another target for ultimately controlling good cholesterol. The study appears in the current issue of Cell Metabolism.
"Several PC enzymes, called furin, PACE4, and PCSK5A, disable another enzyme called endothelial lipase by clipping off a piece of it and by activating its inhibitor," says first author Weijun Jin, MD, Research Assistant Professor of Pharmacology. "This promotes an increased level of HDL-C in the blood".
"We showed that mice engineered to express high levels of PCSK5A had 50 percent higher HDL-C than control mice," says senior author Daniel J. Rader, MD, the Cooper/McLure Professor of Medicine and Associate Director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics at Penn.
Increased HDL-C is due to decreased endothelial lipase (EL) activity. "This is encouraging because it suggests that either the PC or EL enzyme might be targets for drug treatment to raise good cholesterol, an unmet medical need in patients with low HDL-C," says Rader. What's more, the increase in HDL-C was shown to promote reverse cholesterol transport, the process by which HDL protects against heart disease.........
Posted by: Daniel Read more Source
August 8, 2007, 6:51 PM CT
Testosterone Replacement Therapy
For decades, older women have taken hormone replacements to replenish estrogen and progesterone levels lost to aging. More recently, testosterone (the most important male hormone) supplements have been used by aging men to improve their muscle mass, bone strength, libido and quality of life. In 2002, the number of elderly American men taking testosterone replacement treatment was nearly 819,000, and the number is growing. The increased use has occurred despite the fact that the cardiovascular effects of chronic testosterone therapy in aging males are largely unknown, and the safety of testosterone replacement has not been reviewed.
A team of scientists has been using an animal model to investigate potential links between testosterone supplements and cardiovascular and renal disease. The team, comprised of Radu Iliescu, Licy L. Yanes, Julio C. Sartori-Valinotti, and Jane F. Reckelhoff, is affiliated with the University of Mississippi Medical Center's Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Jackson, MS. Their most recent study and an overview of data from other human and animal studies is part of the upcoming conference, Sex and Gender in Cardiovascular-Renal Physiology and Pathophysiology. The meeting, sponsored by The American Physiological Society (APS; www.The-APS.org), is being held August 9-12, 2007 at the Hyatt Regency Austin on Town Lake, Austin, TX.........
Posted by: Scott Read more Source
August 7, 2007, 10:52 PM CT
Miniature implanted devices could treat epilepsy, glaucoma
developed new miniature devices designed to be implanted in the brain to predict and prevent epileptic seizures and a nanotech sensor for implantation in the eye to treat glaucoma.
Findings will be detailed in three research papers being presented at the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society's Sciences and Technologies for Health conference from Aug. 23-26 in Lyon, France.
One research project focuses on a tiny transmitter three times the width of a human hair to be implanted below the scalp to detect the signs of an epileptic seizure before it occurs. The system will record neural signals relayed by electrodes in various points in the brain, said Pedro Irazoqui (pronounced Ear-a-THOkee), an assistant professor of biomedical engineering.
"When epileptics have a seizure, a particular part of the brain starts firing in a way that is abnormal," Irazoqui said. "Being able to record signals from several parts of the brain at the same time enables you to predict when a seizure is about to start, and then you can take steps to prevent it".
Data from the implanted transmitter will be picked up by an external receiver, also being developed by the Purdue researchers.
The most critical aspect of the research is creating a device that transmits a large amount of data at low power. The transmitter consumes 8.8 milliwatts, or about one-third as much power as other implantable transmitters while transmitting 10 times more data. Another key advantage is that the transmitter has the capacity to collect data specifically correlation to epileptic seizures from 1,000 channels, or locations in the brain, Irazoqui said.........
Posted by: Mike Read more Source
August 7, 2007, 10:48 PM CT
E. coli bacteria And Crohn's disease
A team of Cornell University researchers from the College of Veterinary Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences have discovered that a novel group of E. coli bacteria containing genes similar to those described in uropathogenic and avian pathogenic E. coli and enteropathogenic bacteria such as salmonella, cholera, bubonic plague is linked to intestinal inflammation in patients with Crohns disease in their research paper published July 12 by The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology.
Crohns disease, an incurable inflammatory disorder of the intestine most usually found in the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum affects 1-in-1,000 people in Europe and North America. Thus far, gut bacteria have long been suspected in playing a pivotal role in the development of Crohns disease, but the specific bacterial characteristics that drive the inflammatory response have remained elusive.
Scientists at Cornell examined possible causes for the disease in patients with Crohns restricted to the ileum and the colon versus healthy individuals.
Given that only about 20 percent of fecal bacteria can be cultured, our group adopted a broad culture-independent approach to target specific subgroups of bacteria for quantitative in situ analysis and culture based characterization, said Kenneth Simpson, professor of small animal medicine at the College of Veterinary Medicine. Our findings raise the possibility that a novel group of E. coli contains opportunistic pathogens that may be causally correlation to chronic intestinal inflammation in susceptible individuals. They suggest that an integrated approach that considers an individuals mucosa-associated flora in addition to disease phenotype and genotype may improve outcome.........
Posted by: Sue Read more Source
August 7, 2007, 10:26 PM CT
Maturity brings richer memories
Memory formation in children, adolescents and young adults: Brain activation in the medial temporal lobe (lower brain scans) remains constant while activation in the prefrontal cortex (upper brain scans) increases from childhood to adulthood when successfully memorizing pictures with rich detail. Image courtesy / Julian Wong, independent artist, and Noa Ofen, McGovern Institute.
MIT neuroresearchers exploring how memory formation differs between children and adults have observed that eventhough the two groups have much in common, maturity brings richer memories.
In the August 5 advance online edition of Nature Neuroscience, the MIT team reports that children rival adults in forming basic memories, but adults do better at remembering the rich, contextual details of that information. The MIT study provides new insights into how children learn that are not only theoretically important, but could also inform practical learning in everyday settings.
The ability to remember factual information - who, what, where, when - emerges gradually during childhood, and plays a critical role in education. The brain systems underlying it have been extensively studied in adults, but until now little was known about how they mature during child development.
The MIT study indicates that a more developed prefrontal cortex (PFC) - an area of the brain long linked to higher-order thinking, planning, and reasoning -- may be responsible for creating richer memories in adults.
"Activation in the PFC follows an upward slope with age in contextual memories. The older the subjects, the more powerful the activation in that area," explains senior author John Gabrieli of MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, and Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology.........
Posted by: Daniel Read more Source
August 7, 2007, 10:08 PM CT
Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered
Itching for a better anti-itch remedy? Your wish may soon be granted now that researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified the first gene for the itch sensation in the central nervous system. The discovery could rapidly lead to new therapys directly targeting itchiness and providing relief for chronic and severe itching.
The "itch gene" is GRPR (gastrin-releasing peptide receptor), which codes for a receptor found in a very small population of spinal cord nerve cells where pain and itch signals are transmitted from the skin to the brain. The researchers, led by Zhou-Feng Chen, Ph.D., observed that laboratory mice that lacked this gene scratched much less than their normal cage-mates when given itchy stimuli.
The laboratory experiments confirmed the correlation between GRPR and itching, offering the first evidence of a receptor specific for the itch sensation in the central nervous system. The findings are reported this week in Nature through advance online publication.
Chronic itching is a widespread problem. It can be caused by skin disorders like eczema, or it can stem from a deeper problem such as kidney failure or liver disease. It can be a serious side effect of cancer therapies or powerful painkillers like morphine. For some people, chronic itching can be very disruptive, interfering with sleep or giving rise to scratching that leads to scarring. Effective therapy options for itchy patients are limited.........
Posted by: JoAnn Read more Source
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Did you know?
Studies in monkeys and women suggest that unlike traditional estrogen therapy, a diet high in the natural plant estrogens found in soy does not increase the risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women, according to Mark Cline, D.V.M., Ph.D., an associate professor of comparative medicine at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.
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