MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of neurology news blog


Go Back to the main neurology news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Neurology News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


July 1, 2008, 9:27 PM CT

Improving memory in Alzheimer's disease mice

Improving memory in Alzheimer's disease mice
Overactivation of proteins known as calpains, which are involved in memory formation, has been associated with Alzheimer disease. Ottavio Arancio and his colleagues, at Columbia University, New York, have now shown that two different drugs that inhibit calpains can improve memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease (APP/PS1 mice), leading them to suggest drugs that target calpains might stop or slow down the memory loss that occurs as Alzheimer disease progresses.

It is thought that dysfunctional signaling between nerve cells contributes to the impaired cognition experienced by individuals with Alzheimer disease. In the study, analysis of cells and tissue slices from APP/PS1 mice, specifically cells from the part of the brain known as the hippocampus and hippocampal slices, indicated that exposure to calpain inhibitors restored signaling between nerve cells to normal. The authors therefore suggest that calpain inhibitors improve memory in APP/PS1 mice because they reestablish normal signaling between nerve cells.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


June 25, 2008, 10:18 PM CT

Risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease

Risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease
Scientists have discovered the second, strong genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as per a new report in the June 27th issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication.

The newly discovered gene, which previously had no known function, is predominantly active in a region of the brain that is hit early in the disease, where it acts as a channel for calcium, they show. Called calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), their evidence shows that different variants of the gene also influence the levels of amyloid- peptides. Those peptides make up the plaques that form in the brains of those with Alzheimer's.

" We are very excited about the idea that CALHM1 could be an important target for anti-amyloid treatment in Alzheimer's disease," said Philippe Marambaud of The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research and Albert Einstein College of Medicine. CALHM1's presence at the cell surface should ease the process of drug design, he explained. And because its activity is restricted to the brain, drugs aimed at CALHM1 are less likely to have peripheral side effects.

The possibility for side effects is a "big question mark" for other drugs now under clinical study, Marambaud said. Those drugs primarily target enzymes responsible for producing amyloid- peptides, he noted, but those enzymes are also found in other parts of the body.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


June 24, 2008, 10:37 PM CT

Alzheimer's disease as a case of brake failure?

Alzheimer's disease as a case of brake failure?
In a human brain tissue sample with Alzheimer's disease, the brown Cdk5 is in the nucleus of the five cells in the upper center. In the three cells (arrows) with red nuclei, the brown Cdk5 is just outside the nucleus. The red means that the neuron is trying to divide and is hence on its way to die.

Credit: Karl Herrup, Rutgers University

Rutgers researcher Karl Herrup and his colleagues at Case Western Reserve University have discovered that a protein that suppresses cell division in brain cells effectively "puts the brakes" on the dementia that comes with Alzheimer's disease (AD). When the brakes fail, dementia results.

This discovery could open the door to new ways of treating Alzheimer's disease, which affects up to half the population over the age of 85.

Determining the proteins previously unsuspected role in AD is an important piece of the puzzle and it brings a new perspective to the basis of AD. It changes the logic from a search for a trigger that kicks off the dementia to the failure of a safety that has suppressed it, said Herrup, chair of the Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

The scientists reported their findings in the in the June 24 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The paper was previously available online in the PNAS Early Edition.

Herrup has spent a good part of his career seeking to unravel the mystery behind unrestrained cell cycling. Looking at AD through the lens of cancer, Herrup sees the rampant cell division linked to cancer mirrored in AD-related dementia.

In cancer, the seemingly uncontrollable cell division enables the disease to overwhelm normal body cells. Adult neurons, or nerve cells, don't normally divide. (Malignant brain tumors do not grow from neurons but from glial cells.) Instead of producing new neurons in the brain, the cycling leads to cell death, which causes progressive dementia.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


June 17, 2008, 8:57 PM CT

Red grape seeds in treatment of Alzheimer's disease

Red grape seeds in treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Mount Sinai scientists have discovered that polyphenolics derived from red grape seeds may be useful agents to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). The new study entitled, "Grape derived polyphenolics prevent A oligomerization and attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease," was published in The Journal of Neuroscience This new study explored the possibility of developing 'wine mimetic pills' that would replace the recommended beneficial glass of red wine a day for AD prevention.

"Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive impairments in memory and cognition," said Dr. Giulio Maria Pasinetti, senior author and Director of the NCCAM-NIH funded Center of Excellence for Research in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. "The study used a naturally derived grape seed polyphenolic extract and demonstrated its efficacy to reduce AD-type A neuropathology as well as cognitive deterioration in the Tg2576 AD mouse model. This natural compound is immediately available to be tested in AD clinical settings to prevent or treat AD".

Over the past few years scientists at Mount Sinai's Center of Excellence set out to determine whether the FDA's recommended daily servings of red wine (approximately one glass for women and two glasses for men), might have the same positive health effect that studies and surveys of populations had shown in the past. They are currently investigating nearly 5000 compounds contained in red wine.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


June 16, 2008, 9:19 PM CT

Complex Changes in the Brain's Vascular System Occur after Menopause

Complex Changes in the Brain's Vascular System Occur after Menopause
A number of women experience menopausal changes in their body including hot flashes, moodiness and fatigue, but the changes they don't notice can be more dangerous. In a new study, scientists at the University of Missouri have discovered significant changes in the brain's vascular system when the ovaries stop producing estrogen. MU researchers predict that currently used estrogen-based hormone therapies may complicate this process and may do more harm than good in postmenopausal women.

"Before menopause, women are much more protected from certain conditions such as heart disease and stroke, but these vascular changes might explain why women lose this protection after menopause," said Olga Glinskii, research assistant professor of medical pharmacology and physiology in MU's School of Medicine and lead author of the study. "Because the body eventually will naturally adapt to the loss of estrogen, we advise extreme caution when using estrogen-based treatment in postmenopausal women".

In their study, MU scientists removed the ovaries of pigs, which have a reproductive cycle similar to humans, to create postmenopausal conditions. Two months after the ovaries were removed, they observed dramatic differences in the brain's vascular system. There was a huge loss of micro vessels, and blood vessels became "leaky".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 9, 2008, 9:29 PM CT

Children with high risk for a sleep-related breathing disorder

Children with high risk for a sleep-related breathing disorder
Children with high risk for a sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) are more likely to have anxiety, as per a research abstract that will be presented on Monday at SLEEP 2008, the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies (APSS).

The study, authored by Shalini Paruthi, MD, of the University of Michigan, focused on 341 families with a child in second through fifth grade, who were surveyed about SRBD symptoms as well as behavior. Parents completed two well-validated instruments: the SRBD subscale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the Conners Parent Rating Scale.

As per the results, children with a high risk for an SRBD, in comparison to those without, were more likely to have anxiety. This relationship was independent of hyperactivity, which is known to be linked to both SRBD and anxiety.

SRBD is a common condition in children, and is frequently linked to cognitive and behavioral morbidities such as hyperactivity, said Dr. Paruthi. Anxiety in children is often multifactorial and can be linked to other disorders, including ADHD. As ADHD has been linked to SRBD, our results showed that therapy of an SRBD has been shown to improve behavior and cognitive function in children diagnosed with ADHD, and may translate into therapy options for school age children with anxiety. More studies are needed to further explore this relationship between SRBD and anxiety.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 8, 2008, 8:26 PM CT

Origins of the brain

Origins of the brain
One of the great scientific challenges is to understand the design principles and origins of the human brain. New research has shed light on the evolutionary origins of the brain and how it evolved into the remarkably complex structure found in humans.

The research suggests that it is not size alone that gives more brain power, but that, during evolution, increasingly sophisticated molecular processing of nerve impulses allowed development of animals with more complex behaviours.

The study shows that two waves of increased sophistication in the structure of nerve junctions could have been the force that allowed complex brains - including our own - to evolve. The big building blocks evolved before big brains.

Current thinking suggests that the protein components of nerve connections - called synapses - are similar in most animals from humble worms to humans and that it is increase in the number of synapses in larger animals that allows more sophisticated thought.

"Our simple view that 'more nerves' is sufficient to explain 'more brain power' is simply not supported by our study," explained Professor Seth Grant, Head of the Genes to Cognition Programme at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and leader of the project. "Eventhough a number of studies have looked at the number of neurons, none has looked at the molecular composition of neuron connections. We found dramatic differences in the numbers of proteins in the neuron connections between different species".........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


May 27, 2008, 10:05 PM CT

Brain cells help neighboring nerves regenerate

Brain cells help neighboring nerves regenerate
Scientists have uncovered a completely unexpected way that the brain repairs nerve damage, wherein cells known as astrocytes deliver a protective protein to nearby neurons.

Astrocytes are a type of support cell in the brain that serve a number of functions; one of their roles is to chew up damaged nerves during brain injury and then form scar tissue in the damaged area.

Roger Chung and his colleagues have now observed that astrocytes have another trick up their sleeve. During injury, astrocytes overproduce a protein called metallothionein (MT) and secrete it to surrounding nerves; MT is a scavenging protein that grabs free radicals and metal ions and prevents them from damaging a cell, and thus is a potent protecting agent.

While the ability of astrocytes to produce MT has been known for decades, the general view was that the MT stayed within astrocytes to protect them while they help repair damaged areas. However, Chung and his colleagues demonstrated that MT was present in the external fluid of damaged rat brain. Furthermore, with the aid of a fluorescent MT protein, they found that MT made in astrocytes could be transported outside the cell and then subsequently taken up by nearby nerves, and that the level of MT uptake correlated with how well the nerves repaired damage.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


May 22, 2008, 10:11 PM CT

Emerging role of infection in Alzheimer's disease

Emerging role of infection in Alzheimer's disease
Dr. Alzheimer
Amsterdam Many chronic diseases are in fact caused by one or more infectious agents. For example, stomach ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori, chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults are both caused by Mycoplasmas and Chlamydia pneumonia, while some other pathogens have been linked to atherosclerosis. The realization that pathogens can produce slowly progressive chronic diseases has opened new lines of research into Alzheimers disease.

In a special issue of the Journal of Alzheimers Disease published May 2008, guest editors Judith Miklossy, from The University of British Columbia, and Ralph N. Martins, from Edith Cowan University and Hollywood Private Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, and a group of experts explore this exciting topic.

Alzheimers disease (AD), the most frequent cause of dementia, is a form of amyloidosis. It has been known for a century that dementia, brain atrophy and amyloidosis can be caused by chronic bacterial infections, namely by Treponema pallidum in the atrophic form of general paresis in syphilis. Bacteria and viruses are powerful stimulators of inflammation. It was suggested by Alois Alzheimer and colleagues a century ago that microorganisms may be contributors in the generation of senile plaques in AD.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


May 22, 2008, 9:50 PM CT

Gene may shed light on neurological disorders

Gene may shed light on neurological disorders
In our brains, where millions of signals move across a network of neurons like runners in a relay race, all the critical baton passes take place at synapses. These small gaps between nerve cell endings have to be just the right size for messages to transmit properly. Synapses that grow too large or too small are linked to motor and cognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, and other neurological disorders.

In a finding that sheds light on this system, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe a gene that controls the proper development of synapses, which could help explain how the process works and why it sometimes goes wrong.

Reporting today in the journal Neuron, a team of geneticists in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences reveal the role of a gene in fruit flies called "nervous wreck" that prevents synapses from overgrowing by damping the effects of a pro-growth signal. Mutations in a human version of "nervous wreck" have been associated with a severe genetic developmental disability, and these findings may eventually help researchers develop therapys for this and other neurological disorders.

"The precise regulation of synaptic growth - not too much and not too little - is a complex biological process," says Kate O'Connor-Giles, a postdoctoral fellow in the genetics department who led the study. "We really need to have a deep understanding of how all the factors involved are working together to develop rational therapys for neurological disorders linked to aberrant synaptic growth".........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43  

Did you know?
The drug Ativan is better than Valium or Dilantin for controlling severe epileptic seizures, according to a new review of studies.Ativan, or lorazepam, and Valium, or diazepam, are both benzodiazepines, the currently preferred class of drugs for treating severe epileptic seizures. Dilantin, or phenytoin, is an anticonvulsant long used for the treatment of epileptic seizures.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of neurology news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.