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March 19, 2007, 5:14 AM CT

Inflammation And Metastasis Of Prostate Cancer

Inflammation And Metastasis Of Prostate Cancer
A number of would assume that "mounting an immune response" or "having your body fight the cancer" is a good thing. Now, research at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine strongly suggests that inflammation linked to the progression of tumors actually plays a key role in the metastasis of prostate cancer.

The research, appearing online March 19 in advance of publication in the journal Nature, identifies a mechanism which triggers metastasis, which is the spread of cancer in late stages of prostate cancer development. The findings by Michael Karin, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology in UCSD's Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, and his colleagues may help solve the puzzle of why it takes so long for cancer to metastasize, as well as what causes it to do so. Furthermore, this new work may lead to development of anti-metastatic therapies.

A major hypothesis in cancer research has been that whether the cancer metastisizes or not is determined by genetic changes within the cancer cell itself. But this hypothesis didn't explain why metastases appear a number of years after the initial tumor.

"Our findings suggest that promoting inflammation of the malignant tissue, for instance, by performing prostate biopsies, may, ironically, hasten progression of metastasis," said Karin. "We have shown that proteins produced by inflammatory cells are the 'smoking gun' behind prostate cancer metastasis. The next step is to completely indict one of them".........

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March 15, 2007, 6:23 PM CT

Soy Protects Against Prostate Cancer

Soy Protects Against Prostate Cancer
The largest study examining the relationship between the traditional soy-rich Japanese diet and development of prostate cancer in Japanese men has come to a seemingly contradictory conclusion: intake of isoflavone chemicals, derived largely from soy foods, decreased the risk of localized prostate cancer but increased the risk of advanced prostate cancer.

The prospective study of 43,509 men, reported in the recent issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, suggests that the effects of isoflavones on prostate cancer development may differ as per disease stage, say scientists at the National Cancer Center in Japan.

One possible explanation is that isoflavones may delay the progression of latent prostate cancer only; once tumors lose estrogen-receptor beta expression and become aggressive, isoflavones may fail to protect against the development of advanced cancer, and might even increase the risk of progression, possibly by reducing serum testosterone, scientists say. It is also possible that advanced and localized prostate cancer may be different tumor subtypes, which may react differently to isoflavones.

"The present findings provide no clear understanding of when or how localized cancer will develop to aggressive cancer, and of the related effect of isoflavones," said the study's first author, Norie Kurahashi, M.D., of the Epidemiology and Prevention Division of the National Cancer Center.........

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March 1, 2007, 4:53 AM CT

Green Tea And Cox-2 Inhibitors To Fight Prostate Cancer

Green Tea And Cox-2 Inhibitors To Fight Prostate Cancer
Drinking a nice warm cup of green tea has long been touted for its healthful benefits, both real and anecdotal. But now scientists have observed that a component of green tea, combined with low doses of a COX-2 inhibitor, could slow the spread of human prostate cancer.

In the March 1 issue of Clinical Cancer Research, scientists from University of Wisconsin-Madison demonstrate that low doses of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib, administered with a green tea polyphenol called pigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), can slow the growth of human prostate cancer. Their experiments were performed in cell cultures and in a mouse model for the disease.

"Celecoxib and green tea have a synergistic effect -- each triggering cellular pathways that, combined, are more powerful than either agent alone," said Hasan Mukhtar, Ph.D., professor of dermatology at the University of Wisconsin and member of Wisconsin's Paul Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center. "We hope that a clinical trial could lead to a preventative therapy as simple as tea time."

Prior research has linked the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, usually known as COX-2, to a number of cancer types, including prostate cancer, said Mukhtar. Mukhtar and colleagues have previously shown COX-2 inhibitors like celecoxib (known under the brand name CelebrexTM) suppress prostate cancer in animal models. COX-2 inhibitors also have been shown to cause adverse cardiovascular effects when administered at high doses over long durations.........

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February 27, 2007, 8:30 PM CT

Taxotere Improves Survival in Prostate Cancer

Taxotere Improves Survival in Prostate Cancer
One step forward in prostate cancer:

As per a press release by Sanofi-Aventis, long-term results indicate that Taxotere (docetaxel) improves survival in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is second only to non-melanoma skin cancers as the most usually diagnosed cancer in men in the U.S. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that is located between the bladder and rectum. It is responsible for forming a component of semen.

Prostate cancer is stimulated to grow by male hormones, especially testosterone. Hormone treatment, which is intended to reduce levels of male hormones available to cancer cells, is a therapy option for men diagnosed with prostate cancer. By reducing levels of male hormones, the cancer cells are deprived of their growth stimulus, causing the cancer to shrink. Unfortunately, patients ultimately stop responding to hormone treatment after receiving therapy for a period of time; they are then referred to as having hormone-refractory or androgen-independent prostate cancer.........

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January 16, 2007, 5:16 AM CT

Tomato-broccoli Combo For Prostate Cancer

Tomato-broccoli Combo For Prostate Cancer
A new University of Illinois study shows that tomatoes and broccoli--two vegetables known for their cancer-fighting qualities--are better at shrinking prostate tumors when both are part of the daily diet than when they're eaten alone.

"When tomatoes and broccoli are eaten together, we see an additive effect. We think it's because different bioactive compounds in each food work on different anti-cancer pathways," said University of Illinois food science and human nutrition professor John Erdman.

As per a research findings reported in the January 15 issue of Cancer Research, Erdman and doctoral candidate Kirstie Canene-Adams fed a diet containing 10 percent tomato powder and 10 percent broccoli powder to laboratory rats that had been implanted with prostate cancer cells. The powders were made from whole foods so the effects of eating the entire vegetable could be compared with consuming individual parts of them as a nutritional supplement.

Other rats in the study received either tomato or broccoli powder alone; or a supplemental dose of lycopene, the red pigment in tomatoes believed to be the effective cancer-preventive agent in tomatoes; or finasteride, a drug prescribed for men with enlarged prostates. Another group of rats was castrated.

After 22 weeks, the tumors were weighed. The tomato/broccoli combo outperformed all other diets in shrinking prostate tumors. Biopsies of tumors were reviewed at The Ohio State University, confirming that tumor cells in the tomato/broccoli-fed rats were not proliferating as rapidly. The only therapy that approached the tomato/broccoli diet's level of effectiveness was castration, said Erdman.........

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December 21, 2006, 4:14 PM CT

How much is your life worth?

How much is your life worth?
How much is one life worth, how much is your health worth? I am sure most of us would not be able to find an estimate of how much of these worth to us. Some researchers had different idea; they were digging up data to see how much is the financial burden associated with prostate cancer treatment.

As per a recently published data cumulative cost of prostate cancer treatment is over $42,500 over five years. What are they trying to tell us? Our life is worth less than these dollars?

Read the details:

Published in the February 1, 2007 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study reveals that the cumulative cost of prostate cancer is, on average, $42,570 over five years. Watchful waiting was the least expensive treatment while radiation and androgen deprivation therapy were the most expensive. The longitudinal study was the first to look at all related healthcare costs associated with all prostate cancer treatments cumulatively over time and for all ages and disease risks. The cost patterns also indicate that these therapies were appropriately utilized according to current guidelines for disease risk and age. Therefore some therapies are actually costly because they are being appropriately used for higher risk or older patients.........

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December 13, 2006, 4:39 AM CT

Older Men With Early Prostate Cancer

Older Men With Early Prostate Cancer
Recent findings from an observational study by scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine suggest that men between 65 and 80 years of age who received therapy for early stage, localized prostate cancer lived significantly longer than men who did not receive therapy. The study would be reported in the December 13th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Thanks to better cancer prevention education and the resulting wide-spread increase in using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings, more men are being diagnosed with early-stage and low-or intermediate-grade prostate cancer. Studies have shown that the slow-developing nature of prostate cancer during its earliest stages makes therapy options, such as a radical prostatectomy (surgical removal of the prostate) and radiation treatment, controversial with unpredictable outcomes. Often, recently diagnosed men of this group were advised to just "watch and wait" to see how their situation progressed.

"For this study we looked back over the existing data of a large population of patients with prostate cancer, aged 65 to 80, with small tumors that were at a low or intermediate risk of spreading," said senior author Katrina Armstrong, MD, MSCE, who worked on the study with colleagues from Penn's Abramson Cancer Center, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leonard Davis Institute of Health and Economics, and Division of Internal Medicine, and Fox Chase Cancer Center. "After accounting for all their differences, we discovered that the men - who within six months of diagnosis underwent surgery or radiation treatment - were 31 percent less likely to die than those who did not undergo therapy during that time".........

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November 30, 2006, 4:17 AM CT

Vegetables May Help Protect Against Prostate Cancer

Vegetables May Help Protect Against Prostate Cancer
Our parents may have been on to something when they told us to eat our vegetables, finish eating every pea and bean on our plates.

In two separate studies it was observed that nutrients in certain foods might reduce the risk for prostate cancer, as per Jackilen Shannon, Ph.D., M.P.H., a member of the Oregon Health & Science University Cancer Institute and the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Shannon will present these findings Tuesday, Nov. 14 between 6 and 8 p.m. in Boston, Mass., at the Fifth Annual International Conference of the American Association of Cancer Research Frontiers in Cancer Prevention.

In the "Folate Nutrition, Alcohol Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk" study, Shannon looked at the folate and alcohol consumption among two groups of veterans: 137 men who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and 238 men who had a normal prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and thus were considered to be at low risk for prostate disease. Folate is found in foods such as dark, green leafy vegetables; liver; kidney; dried beans and mushrooms. Folate is mandatory for the production of red blood cells but also plays an important role in inhibiting a certain type of DNA damage known as methylation. DNA damage is believed to be important in the development of cancer.........

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November 28, 2006, 5:11 AM CT

Aging Gene Protects Against Prostate Cancer

Aging Gene Protects Against Prostate Cancer
Cancer researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia have shown that a gene that is involved in regulating aging also blocks prostate cancer cell growth. The researchers, led by Kimmel Cancer Center director Richard Pestell, M.D., Ph.D., hope the newly found connection will aid in better understanding the development of prostate cancer and lead to new drugs against the disease.

SIRT1 is a member of a family of enzymes called sirtuins that have far-reaching influence in all organisms, including roles in metabolism, gene expression and aging.

"We know that sirtuins play a role in aging, and that the risk for prostate cancer increases with aging, but no one has ever linked the two until now," says Dr. Pestell, who is also professor and chair of cancer biology at Jefferson Medical College.

"We've shown that by making a prostate cancer with cells overexpressing a mutation for the androgen receptor, which is resistant to current forms of treatment, we can almost completely block the growth of these cells with SIRT1," he says. Dr. Pestell and his team report their findings in November in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biology.

As per Dr. Pestell, prostate cancer cells can express a mutation that makes patients resistant to current forms of therapy such as hormonal treatment. Such treatment focuses on inactivating the androgen receptor by giving agents that shut off testosterone production.........

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November 10, 2006, 4:04 AM CT

Firefighters Face Increased Risk Of Cancers

Firefighters Face Increased Risk Of Cancers
University of Cincinnati (UC) environmental health scientists have determined that firefighters are significantly more likely to develop four different types of cancer than workers in other fields.

Their findings suggest that the protective equipment firefighters have used in the past didn't do a good job in protecting them against cancer-causing agents they encounter in their profession, the scientists say.

The scientists found, for example, that firefighters are twice as likely to develop testicular cancer and have significantly higher rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prostate cancer than non-firefighters. The scientists also confirmed prior findings that firefighters are at greater risk for multiple myeloma.

Grace LeMasters, PhD, Ash Genaidy, PhD, and James Lockey, MD, report these findings in the November edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The UC-led study is the largest comprehensive study to date investigating cancer risk linked to working as a firefighter.

"We believe there's a direct connection between the chemical exposures firefighters experience on the job and their increased risk for cancer," says LeMasters, professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at UC.

Firefighters are exposed to a number of compounds designated as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--including benzene, diesel engine exhaust, chloroform, soot, styrene and formaldehyde, LeMasters explains. These substances can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin and occur both at the scene of a fire and in the firehouse, where idling diesel fire trucks produce diesel exhaust.........

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Prostate cancer
The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum in male. The tube that carries urine runs through the prostate. The prostate contains cells that make some of the seminal fluid. This fluid protects and nourishes the sperm. Prostate cancer usually starts in the gland cells of the prostate. This kind of cancer is known as adenocarcinoma. Prostate cancer is usually a slow disease, but sometimes it can grow fast and spread quickly to other organs. Archives of prostate-cancer-blog

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