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March 30, 2006, 7:29 AM CT

Metabolites Responsible For Breast And Prostate Cancer

Metabolites Responsible For Breast And Prostate Cancer
Cancer scientists have discovered that metabolites of natural estrogens can react with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to cause specific damage that initiates the series of events leading to breast, prostate and other human cancers. This understanding of a common mechanism of cancer initiation could result in cancer prevention and in better assessment of cancer risk.

The scientists will present their findings at the 81st annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (SWARM-AAAS) on Friday, April 7, at the University of Tulsa, in Tulsa, Okla.

The symposium - "Catechol Estrogen Quinones as Initiators of Breast and other Human Cancers" - will be led by Drs. Ryszard Jankowiak of the Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, and Ercole Cavalieri of the Eppley Cancer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center.

"We have a novel approach to cancer. We know the initiating step," said Dr. Cavalieri. "We think prevention of cancer is a problem we can solve by eliminating this initiating step. Estrogens can induce cancer when natural mechanisms of protection do not work properly in our body, and the estrogen quinones are able to react with DNA. In fact, if these protections are insufficient, due to genetic, lifestyle or environmental influences, then cancer can result.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


March 27, 2006, 11:54 PM CT

Better Prostate Cancer Indicators

Better Prostate Cancer Indicators
Scientists at Mayo Clinic have narrowed the search for effective prostate cancer biomarkers (genetic variations that point to a specific disease or condition), identifying changes in the expression of genes of the whole genome closely corcorrelation to prostate cancer development and progression. They also showed that DNA hypermethylation (DNA modification without changing sequence) plays a significant role in these processes. Results of their study were reported in the Feb. 15 issue of Clinical Cancer Research.

"This is good news in an area where our ability to diagnose and predict has previously been less than stellar," said Krishna Donkena, Ph.D., Mayo Clinic urologic researcher. "Our only tool is the PSA test, which has little predictive value. These findings move us much closer to a more accurate test."

The search to identify biomarkers that can be translated into affordable and effective medical tests can be complicated. Prostate cancer causes differential expression of hundreds of different genes, each potentially an indicator of whether a man may get the disease, or already has it. They also may be used to provide information on the development of the cancer, without the need for a painful tumor biopsy.

When seeking to narrow their search to a manageable level, the scientists analyzed 32 malignant and eight non-malignant patient-tissue samples using genome microarrays representing 33,000 human genes. The information they gleaned from this analysis allowed them to identify 624 differentially-expressed genes between malignant and non-malignant tissue. They validated these findings in the original 40 tissue samples as well as in 32 additional samples (20 malignant, 12 benign). The results showed eight genes with significant under-expression and three with significant over-expression, strongly implicating them in prostate cancer development and progression.........

Posted by: Mark      Permalink         Source


March 24, 2006, 0:30 AM CT

No Treatment Is The Right Option

No Treatment Is The Right Option
When Houston restaurateur Tony Masraff was diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer, his life was packed with dancing, running marathons, playing tennis, gardening, leading a successful business and spending time with his family.

But it wasn't until his doctor at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center advised "watchful waiting" as an option to invasive surgery and radiation that he realized he could continue his active life - free of therapy side effects, but with the cancer.

Masraff is one of about 200 men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer at M. D. Anderson on active surveillance for their disease, having changes monitored through regular Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies and check-ups. He also is one of hundreds of thousands of men nationwide who have had their prostate cancer detected by regular PSA tests at such an early stage that managing low-risk disease through surveillance outweighs the risks and possible side effects of therapys.

Now, a new study at M. D. Anderson will follow low-risk patients eligible for watchful waiting to determine if they can avoid or postpone treatment and related side effects, and still live as long as patients who immediately receive invasive treatment. The study will provide key information for the future development of clinical guidelines for watchful waiting.........

Posted by: Mark      Permalink         Source


March 23, 2006, 9:27 PM CT

Eat Salmon To Prevent Prostate Cancer

Eat Salmon To Prevent Prostate Cancer
Everyone knows that eating fish rich in omega-3 fats may protect you from heart attacks. Now there is one more reason to eat fish rich in omega-3 fats. Recent research has shown that fish that contains good amounts of omega-3 fats may actually protect men from prostate cancer.

Omega-3 fatty acids together with omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that the body cannot synthesize. This has to be supplied from external sources and is shown to protect from heart attacks.

Rich sources of Omega-6 fats include vegetable oils, nuts and seeds. Omega 3 fats are found in oily fish such as salmon and mackerel.

This study led by Dr Mick Brown found while Omega-6 increased the spread of tumor cells into bone marrow, omega-3 blocked the spread.

"We only need about half as much omega-3 as omega-6 - that will still stop cancer cells from spreading," Dr Mick Brown said.........

Posted by: Mark      Permalink

March 15, 2006

Pepper Component To Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

Pepper Component To Kill Prostate Cancer Cells
Capsaicin, the stuff that turns up the heat in jalapenos, not only causes the tongue to burn, it also drives prostate cancer cells to kill themselves, according to studies published in the March 15 issue of Cancer Research.
According to a team of researchers from the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, in collaboration with colleagues from UCLA, the pepper component caused human prostate cancer cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Capsaicin induced approximately 80 percent of prostate cancer cells growing in mice to follow the molecular pathways leading to apoptosis. Prostate cancer tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of tumors in non-treated mice.

"Capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells in culture," said Soren Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., visiting scientist at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the UCLA School of Medicine. "It also dramatically slowed the development of prostate tumors formed by those human cell lines grown in mouse models."

Lehmann estimated that the dose of pepper extract fed orally to the mice was equivalent to giving 400 milligrams of capsaicin three times a week to a 200 pound man, roughly equivalent to between three and eight fresh habañera peppers - depending on the pepper's capsaicin content. Habañeras are the highest rated pepper for capsaicin content according to the Scoville heat index. Habañero peppers, which are native to the Yucatan, typically contain up to 300,000 Scoville units. The more popular Jalapeño variety from Oaxaca, Mexico, and the southwest United States, contains 2,500 to 5,000 Scoville units.

Mark      Permalink


March 1, 2006

Prostate Cancer Surgery Could Be Delayed

Prostate Cancer Surgery Could Be Delayed
Delaying surgery -- even for years -- for patients with small, low-grade prostate cancer does not appear to increase the risk of the disease progressing to an incurable form, according to a 10-year Johns Hopkins Medicine study.

The study, published in the March 1 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, found the risk of noncurable prostate cancer -- defined as a less than 75 percent chance of remaining disease-free 10 years after surgery -- was the same for men receiving immediate surgical treatment and those who waited -- on average -- two years before surgery.

"This study suggests that for carefully selected men with prostate cancer who are monitored, the window of cure does not close in the short term. For those men diagnosed with early-stage, low-grade prostate cancer, an alternative to immediate surgical treatment would be careful surveillance," says H. Ballentine Carter, M.D., a professor of urology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and senior author of the study.

Some researchers believe delayed treatment combined with an active surveillance program could decrease over-treatment. Others, however, believe postponing surgery might shift the patient outside the window of curability.

Men screened for prostate cancer with the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test are on average diagnosed with the cancer 10 years earlier than men not undergoing PSA screening. While early diagnosis may contribute to a decrease in prostate cancer mortality in some patients, it may lead to invasive treatments of a cancer that may never present a health risk to the patient.

Carter says Hopkins has been enrolling patients in a monitoring program since 1995 with great success, although some patients prefer to go ahead and pursue treatment for "piece of mind."

"Some patients who learn they have cancer are anxious to have treatment 'yesterday'. We hope this study will illustrate that in many cases a safe alternative to immediate treatment is surveillance," Carter says. "Specifically, these would be men with small, low-grade tumors."

Three-hundred and twenty men believed to have these kinds of tumors have been enrolled in an active surveillance program since 1995. Small, low-grade prostate cancer was defined as having a PSA density (PSA divided by prostate volume) below 0.15, no more than two biopsy cores involved with cancer, no biopsy core that showed more than 50 percent cancerous tissue and no high-grade cancer.


Mark      Permalink


Feb 27, 2006

Surgeon's Experience Affects Prostate Cancer Outcome

Surgeon's Experience Affects Prostate Cancer Outcome
Before you undergo prostate cancer surgery, it's important to know how many prostate cancer surgeries that surgeon has performed in the past. This is important because the outcome of the surgery and the chance of recurrence may very well depend upon the skills of the surgeon. A recent study showed that chance of prostate cancer recurrence after surgery to remove the prostate is not only influenced by features of the tumor but also by the skill or level of experience of the surgeon.

This study showed that if performed by a surgeon who has performed at least 250 prostate cancer surgeries in the past are more likely to get rid of the cancer permanently. This means that if an experienced urology surgeon performs your surgery you're more likely to be cured.

Don't be hesitant to ask the surgeon about their level of his experience. After he is performing surgery on your body.

These findings were presented at the 2006 Prostate Cancer Symposium in San Francisco. This study is based on 7535 men who had their prostates removed by a procedure called radical prostatectomy. After an average follow-up of 50 months, 1,281 patients (17 percent) experienced a recurrence of prostate cancer as indicated by a rising PSA level.

"The learning curve looks like it continues to rise up to 250 procedures," Scardino said. "But the emphasis," he cautioned, "should not be on the exact number but on the principle that the more the surgeon has done the better."

Mark      Permalink


Feb 21, 2006

Making Sense Of The Psa Test

Making Sense Of The Psa Test
Male relatives of prostate cancer patients need more information in order to help them understand the possible familial risk of the disease, and to decide whether or not to have a PSA* test, according to research published in the British Journal of Cancer** today (Tuesday).

The benefit of PSA testing as a screening tool remains uncertain. It may have value for screening first degree relatives of men with prostate cancer who are consequently at an increased risk of developing the disease - about 10 to 15 per cent of British men - but this approach needs to be fully tested. However, two Cancer Research UK-funded studies at The Institute of Cancer Research have found that such a targeted screening programme would be difficult to run and may have a low uptake by relatives invited to have their PSA levels tested.

There are many unknowns about the PSA test. It can often detect problems in the prostate at an early stage, but a positive result does not always mean cancer. As such, getting the result of a PSA test can be a confusing situation that requires clear information and advice from health professionals.

The studies were designed to look at how the PSA test could be practicably used as a possible screening test for relatives of prostate cancer patients. Results showed that some patients were reluctant to involve their family members in screening. Many of the relatives who did respond to the suggestion of screening had already had a PSA test, but took part because they still felt they needed more information about prostate cancer.

The PSA test has not been shown to work as a screening test for the general population, although trials are ongoing. One concern is that a raised PSA level, while not always indicative of prostate cancer, nevertheless sometimes leads to invasive investigations that then find the situation to be normal. There is also doubt over whether screening using PSA tests would reduce prostate cancer deaths overall.

Source

Mark      Permalink


Feb 15, 2006

Vitamins May Not Protect You From Prostate Cancer

Vitamins May Not Protect You From Prostate Cancer
Contrary to popular belief, taking the vitamins E and C or the nutrient beta-carotene doesn't protect against prostate cancer as per the latest government reports. In a government research report, published Tuesday in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, the authors say that consumption of vitamins and beta-carotene may not provide protection from prostate cancer in men.

Several previous studies have yielded conflicting results on this topic, and even this new study of almost 30,000 men is not considered to be the last word on this issue. While the study showed no protective for vitamin E, the study leaves open the possibility that it might help smokers.

The primary goal of the study was to test the value of screening tests for prostate cancer. In that study they were also surveyed about their diet and what supplements they took, relying on memory, not nearly as precise as other research now under way that controls supplement doses.

The study showed that smokers were 71 percent less likely to be diagnosed with advanced disease if they had taken high doses of vitamin E for several years. But, to add to the confusion, the risk of earlier-stage cancer increased among vitamin E-using smokers.

It is known that, smoking by itself increases the risk of prostate cancer, and even if further research concludes that vitamin E somehow tempers that risk, kicking the habit would be far more protective, as per comments by Harvard University scientists in an accompanying editorial.

Mark      Permalink


Feb 13, 2006

Inflammatory Reaction And Hormone Resistance

Inflammatory Reaction And Hormone Resistance
In a study led by Michael Rosenfeld and David Rose at the University of California, San Diego, the researchers have found that cell cultures that so-called macrophages--components of the innate immune system that drive inflammatory reactions--physically interact with prostate cancer cells. That interaction, in turn, reverses the activity of hormone receptors in cancer cells that respond to androgens, such as testosterone, leading to shifts in the expression of other genes. The study's co-first authors were Ping Zhu and Sung Hee Baek, also of UCSD.

"While hormone resistance can likely be acquired in multiple ways, it appears we may have uncovered a general contributor to hormone resistance in prostate cancer," Rosenfeld said.

"Hormone resistance is a particular problem in prostate cancer, where it occurs in a very high percentage of cases," Rose added. "We think we've now made a connection between inflammation and resistance to particular cancer drugs."

Androgens, acting via androgen receptors, are essential for normal growth and function of the prostate gland and have been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) --drugs intended to inhibit the activity of androgen receptors--are therefore standard treatment for prostate cancer. However, prostate cancers often become resistant to such treatment. A similar, though less common, phenomenon can also occur in breast cancers treated with drugs that target the hormone receptor for estrogen.

Mark      Permalink




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Prostate cancer
The prostate is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum in male. The tube that carries urine runs through the prostate. The prostate contains cells that make some of the seminal fluid. This fluid protects and nourishes the sperm. Prostate cancer usually starts in the gland cells of the prostate. This kind of cancer is known as adenocarcinoma. Prostate cancer is usually a slow disease, but sometimes it can grow fast and spread quickly to other organs.

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