MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of psychology news blog


Go Back to the main psychology news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Psychology News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


December 27, 2007, 9:12 AM CT

Brief intervention helps emergency patients reduce drinking

Brief intervention helps emergency patients reduce drinking
Asking emergency department patients about their alcohol use and talking with them about how to reduce harmful drinking patterns is an effective way to lower rates of risky drinking in these patients, as per a nationwide collaborative study supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Emergency department patients who underwent a regimen of alcohol screening and brief intervention reported lower rates of risky drinking at three-month follow-up than did those who received only written information about reducing their drinking. A report of the study by the Academic Emergency Department Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Research Collaborative* appears in the December, 2007 issue of the Annals of Emergency Medicine.

This encouraging finding raises the prospect of reaching a number of individuals whose alcohol misuse might otherwise go untreated, says NIAAA Director Ting-Kai Li, M.D.

These new findings underscore the importance of using the American Medical Association health care codes for substance abuse screening and brief intervention, said SAMHSA Administrator Terry Cline, Ph.D.

Codes established by the AMA serve as the most widely accepted classification system for reporting medical procedures and services to public and private health insurance programs. In January, 2008 new codes will allow physicians to report services they provide to screen patients for alcohol problems and to provide a behavioral intervention for high-risk drinking.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 25, 2007, 11:04 PM CT

Thinking patterns and addiction

Thinking patterns and addiction
Researchers have for the first time identified brain sites that fire up more when people make impulsive decisions. In a study comparing brain activity of sober alcoholics and non-addicted people making financial decisions, the group of sober alcoholics showed significantly more "impulsive" neural activity.

The scientists also discovered that a specific gene mutation boosted activity in these brain regions when people made impulsive choices. The mutation was already known to reduce brain levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The newly found link involving the gene, impulsive behavior and brain activity suggests that raising dopamine levels may be an effective therapy for addiction, the researchers say.

The research is published in the Dec. 26, 2007 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Lead scientist is Charlotte Boettiger, PhD, assistant professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Boettiger led the research as a scientist at UCSF's Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center. Senior author is Howard Fields, MD, PhD, a UCSF professor of neurology and an investigator in the Gallo Center. He also serves as director of the UCSF Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction.

Our data suggest there may be a cognitive difference in people with addictions, Boettiger said. Their brains may not fully process the long-term consequences of their choices. They may compute information less efficiently.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 20, 2007, 5:28 AM CT

Parents show bias in sibling rivalry

Parents show bias in sibling rivalry
The parent beetle feeding a young grub.

Credit: Allen Moore
Most parents would hotly deny favouring one child over another but new research suggests they may have little choice in the matter.

Biologists studying a unique species of beetle that raises and cares for its young have observed that parents instinctively favour the oldest offspring.

The University of Manchester research published in Ecology this month supports the findings of studies carried out on human families but is significant in that it suggests a wholly natural tendency towards older siblings.

The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides has a similar family structure to that of a human family unit in that there are two parents, many offspring and interactions between parents and their young, said Dr Per Smiseth, who led the research in the Universitys Faculty of Life Sciences.

Of course human families are more complex and parent-child relationships are much more sophisticated. However, studying this beetle can help us understand the basic biological principles of how family relationships work.

Our study looked at how the parent beetles mediate competition between different aged offspring in comparison to what happens when the young were left to fend for themselves and indicates that parental decisions are important in determining the outcome of competition between offspring.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 18, 2007, 9:52 PM CT

Maternal grandparents are more involved

Maternal grandparents are more involved
As families gather round for the winter holidays, some faces may be more familiar than others.

A recent study shows that the amount of social interaction between extended family members depends on whether people are related through their mother or father.

Thomas Pollet and his colleagues at Newcastle University and the University of Antwerp, Belgium, investigated how far maternal grandparents and paternal grandparents will go to maintain face-to-face contact with their grandchildren. They observed that maternal grandparents were willing to travel further in order to sustain frequent (daily or a few times a week) contact with their grandchildren than paternal grandparents.

Mr Pollet says, As the festive period approaches, we can still see that family get-togethers are integral to the celebrations. A number of people will be going the extra mile to ensure they meet up and weve observed thats especially important if family members are related through mothers.

Even in families where there has been divorce, we found consistent differences grandparents on your mother's side make the extra effort. We believe there are psychological mechanisms at play because throughout history, women are always related by maternity whereas men can never be wholly certain they are the biological father to their children.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 17, 2007, 10:32 PM CT

How Doctors Deal With The Risks

How Doctors Deal With The Risks
Risk is an inherent element of the hospital system and the resulting dangers are often normalised by medical staff to allow them to do their job, as per research by a University of Nottingham academic.

Dr Justin Waring, Lecturer in Medical Sociology and Health Policy at the University, observed that medical staff were inevitably pessimistic about the ability of their management team to understand the level of risk that doctors and nurses dealt with on a day-to-day basis. They felt that management were too far removed from the realities of clinical safety to judge best practice and that the priorities and targets that drive risk management - such as cost savings and cutting waiting times - diverged from those of the clinicians.

Dr Waring identified the operating theatre as a complex 'hub' within the hospital system, which had a symbiotic relationship with other departments - including surgical wards, the anaesthetic department, sterile services and lab and imaging services. Problems in the operating theatre were found to 'spill over' into related departments, creating 'cascade chains' of risk, which clinicians in all areas then had to deal with.

As a result, medical staff develop ritualistic behaviours that are based on shared cultural norms and expectations - just to get the job done. They tolerate and endure levels of risk and sub-standard working; accommodate or accept the presence of risk by making small modifications to clinical practice; and innovate, developing new procedures to work around risk. This emphasis on coping has come to be seen as a mark of professionalism among medical staff.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 17, 2007, 8:50 PM CT

Social and Financial Implications of Adult ADHD

Social and Financial Implications of Adult ADHD
Mount Laurel, NJ, December 17, 2007 Nationally recognized Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) authority Russell Barkley, Ph.D., has embarked on a national speaking tour to discuss the symptoms of ADHD in adults and the potentially serious consequences these symptoms may have on the life of an adult living with this disorder. ADHD is believed to affect an estimated 8.1 percent of adults, or 9.2 million adults across the U.S. based on a retrospective survey of adults aged 18 to 44, projected to the full U.S. adult population. The purpose of this tour is to help raise awareness about the importance of identifying, diagnosing and treating adult ADHD.

In children, ADHD may interfere with paying attention in school, completing homework or making friends. Difficulties experienced in childhood may continue into adulthood. The symptoms of ADHD in adults may lead to potentially serious consequences. Surveys have shown that when compared with their non-ADHD peers, adults with ADHD may be:.
  • Three times more likely to be currently unemployed
  • Two times more likely to have problems keeping friends
  • Forty-seven percent more likely to have trouble saving money to pay bills
  • Four times more likely to have contracted a sexually transmitted disease
........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 13, 2007, 10:06 PM CT

Effective new treatment for schizophrenia

Effective new treatment for schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating of the major psychiatric disorders, and is also one of the most difficult to treat. Eventhough numerous antipsychotic therapys are available, they can cause significant side effects and a number of patients experience only a partial relief of their symptoms and up to 30% no relief at all. In a new study scheduled for publication in the December 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry, Marder and his colleagues examined the efficacy and safety of a new psychotropic agent for the therapy of schizophrenia in a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

The authors studied paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets, an investigational drug which orally delivers the active metabolite of the drug risperidone, which is an already established efficacious antipsychotic. The authors recruited 444 patients who were experiencing an acute episode of schizophrenia and, after evaluating the severity of their symptoms, administered one of four therapys for 6 weeks: 6 mg or 12 mg/day of paliperidone ER, 10 mg/day of olanzapine (the active comparator), or placebo. During the six weeks of therapy, the researchers monitored the patients for side effects and assessed their symptom improvement.

Dr. Stephen Marder, senior author on the paper, explains the findings: This double-blind study observed that two doses of paliperidone extended release tablets were more effective than placebo for treating the symptoms of acute schizophrenia. Patients receiving the most effective dose of paliperidone (6 mg) also demonstrated improvements in their social functioning. Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University and Director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, comments, This study demonstrates the efficacy of the 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone that has antipsychotic efficacy and an acceptable safety profile which provides psychiatry experts with yet another therapy option. It has practical advantages with its long half life, duration of action and extended release formulation. Dr. Lieberman cautions though that this finding is not a novel or breakthrough therapy and does not provide major differences or advantages over existing therapys. Additional studies are currently underway to further evaluate the long-term (up to one year) efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in the therapy of schizophrenia.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 10, 2007, 10:40 PM CT

Parenting practices don't suffer during divorce

Parenting practices don't suffer during divorce
New research is challenging the notion that parents who divorce necessarily exhibit a diminished capacity to parent in the period following divorce. A large, longitudinal study conducted by University of Alberta sociology professor Lisa Strohschein has observed that divorce does not change parenting behavior, and that there are actually more similarities than differences in parenting between recently divorced and married parents.

The study used data from the 1994 and 1996 cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NSLCY) to compare changes in parenting practices between 208 households that divorced between the first and follow up interview and 4796 households that remained intact. Strohschein looked at three measures of parenting behavior (nurturing, consistent, and punitive parenting) to tap into the different ways that divorce is believed to disrupt parenting practices. Her results show that there are no differences between divorced and stably married parents for any parenting behavior either before or after a divorce has occurred.

My findings that parenting practices are uncorrelation to divorce appear to fly in the face of accepted wisdom, states Strohschein. Undoubtedly, some parents will be overwhelmed and unable to cope with the demands of parenting in the post-divorce period, but the expectation that all parents will be negatively affected by divorce is unfounded.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 10, 2007, 10:36 PM CT

Psychiatrists: Least religious but most interested

Psychiatrists: Least religious but most interested
Eventhough psychiatry experts are among the least religious physicians, they seem to be the most interested in the religious and spiritual dimensions of their patients, as per survey data reported in the recent issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.

Ever since Freud described religious faith as an illusion and a neurosis there has been tension and at times hostility between religion and psychiatry. Psychiatry experts are less religious on average than other physicians, as per previously published data from the same survey, and non-psychiatry expert physicians who are religious are less willing to refer their patients to psychiatry experts.

This report observed that eventhough they may be less religious than other physicians, psychiatry experts appear to be more comfortable and have more experience addressing religious or spiritual concerns in the clinical setting.

"Recent efforts have begun to bridge the divide between religion and psychiatry," said study author Farr Curlin, MD, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago. "In the past, manuals of psychiatry tended to identify religiosity with mental illness. Now they distinguish normal religious and spiritual ideas and behaviors from those that result from mental illness".

"Moreover," he added, "several recent studies have observed that religiosity is often linked to improved mental health outcomes such as quicker recovery from depression. Now most training programs teach developing psychiatry experts about the potentially beneficial influence of religion and spirituality on patients' mental health".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 10, 2007, 10:28 PM CT

Missing protein may be key to autism

Missing protein may be key to autism
A missing brain protein may be one of the culprits behind autism and other brain disorders, as per scientists at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory.

The protein, called CASK, helps in the development of synapses, which neurons use to communicate with one another and which underlie our ability to learn and remember. Improperly formed synapses could lead to mental retardation, and mutations in genes encoding certain synaptic proteins are linked to autism.

In work reported in the Dec. 6 issue of Neuron, Li-Huei Tsai, Picower Professor of Neuroscience at MIT, reported that she has uncovered an enzyme that is key to the activity of CASK.

Tsai studies a kinase (kinases are enzymes that change proteins) called Cdk5. While Cdk5's best-known role is to help new neurons form and migrate to their correct positions during brain development, "emerging evidence supports an important role for Cdk5 at the synapse," she said.

To gain a better understanding of how Cdk5 promotes synapse formation, Tsai's lab looked into how Cdk5 interacts with synapse-inducing proteins like CASK. A key scaffolding protein, CASK is one of the first proteins on the scene of a developing synapse.

Scaffolding proteins such as CASK are like site managers, supporting protein-to-protein interactions to ensure that the resulting architecture is sound. Mutations in the genes responsible for Cdk5 and CASK have been found in mental retardation patients.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50  

Did you know?
Too little evidence exists to recommend or rule out estrogen as a treatment for schizophrenia in women, a new review of studies finds.People diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer distorted perceptions of reality and hallucinations. Today, estrogen is strictly an experimental therapy for the psychotic symptoms associated with the mental illness.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of psychology news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.