MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of psychology news blog


Go Back to the main psychology news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Psychology News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


April 21, 2007, 8:39 AM CT

Monkeys' ability to reflect on their thoughts

Monkeys' ability to reflect on their thoughts
New research from Columbia's Primate Cognition Laboratory has shown for the first time that monkeys could acquire meta-cognitive skills: the ability to reflect about their thoughts and to assess their performance.

The study was a collaborative effort between Herbert Terrace, Columbia professor of psychology & psychiatry, and director of its Primate Cognition Laboratory, and two graduate students, Lisa Son now professor of psychology at Barnard College and UCLA postdoctoral researcher Nate Kornell.

The study, which appears in the recent issue of Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, was designed to show that a monkey could express its confidence in its answers to multiple-choice questions about its memory based on the amount of imaginary currency it was willing to wager. Their experiment was derived from the observation that children often make pretend bets to assert that they know the answer to some question. As per Son, "the ability to reflect on one's knowledge has always been thought of as exclusively human. We designed a task to determine if a non-human primate could similarly learn to express its confidence about its knowledge by making large or small wagers."

In the experiment, two monkeys were trained to play a video game that would test their ability to remember a particular photograph while also allowing them to make a large or a small bet. Ultimately, this wager would reflect the monkey's perception of their memory accuracy.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


April 21, 2007, 6:44 AM CT

Family turmoil and domestic violence

Family turmoil and domestic violence
Adolescents who are chronically exposed to family turmoil, violence, noise, poor housing or other chronic risk factors show more stress-induced physiological strain on their organs and tissues than other young people.

However, when they have responsive, supportive mothers, they do not experience these negative physiological changes, reports a new study from Cornell.

But the research group also observed that the cardiovascular systems of youths who are exposed to chronic and multiple risk factors are compromised, regardless of their mothers' responsiveness.

The study, led by environmental and developmental psychology expert Gary Evans, is reported in the recent issue of Developmental Psychology. It is the first study to look at how maternal responsiveness may protect against cumulative risk as well as the first, as per the researchers, to look at cardiovascular recovery from stress in children or youths.

Evans said that the findings suggest that the physiological toll of coping with multiple risk factors is significantly greater than with that of coping with a single event, even if that event was rather severe. "Moreover the burden appears to register in physiological systems that help us regulate our responses to stress," said Evans, the Elizabeth Lee Vincent Professor of Human Ecology and professor of human development and of design and environmental analysis in Cornell's College of Human Ecology.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


April 17, 2007, 4:49 AM CT

Change in neuroticism tied to mortality rates

Change in neuroticism tied to mortality rates
While mellowing with age has often been thought to have positive effects, a Purdue University researcher has shown that doing so could also help you live longer.

Dan Mroczek (pronounced Mro-ZAK), an associate professor of child development and family studies at Purdue University, compared neurotic and non-neurotic men over time and tied change in the trait with mortality.

"We observed that neurotic men whose levels dropped over time had a better chance at living longer," Mroczek said. "They seemed to recover from any damage high levels of the trait may have caused. On the flip side, neurotic men whose neuroticism increased over time died much sooner than their peers."

A neurotic personality was defined as a person with the tendency to worry, feel excessive amounts of anxiety or depression and to react to stressful life events more negatively than people with low levels of the trait. Neuroticism levels were measured using a standardized personality test.

Results of the study would be reported in the print edition of the journal Psychological Science in late May. The study is available online at http://www.psychologicalscience.org.

In the study, scientists tracked the change in neuroticism levels of 1,663 aging men over a 12-year period. Using the data gathered in the first analysis, scientists calculated the men's mortality risk over an 18-year period using the average levels and rates of change.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


April 3, 2007, 10:15 PM CT

Men and Women See Things Differently

Men and Women See Things Differently
In the hands of the wrong person, power can be dangerous. That's particularly the case in the workplace, where the abuse of power can lead to sexual harassment.

Issues of power, workplace culture and the interpretation of verbal and non-verbal communication linked to sexual harassment were the focus of a study by Debbie Dougherty, assistant professor of communication in the College of Arts and Science at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Working with a large healthcare organization in the Midwest, Dougherty examined the question: why does sexual harassment occur?.

"Power," she said. "It was the common answer. It came up repeatedly. However, what I found were multiple definitions of power."

Those definitions varied by gender. Dougherty's assessment was based on the opinions and perceptions of 23 participants (11 women and 12 men) representing a range of hierarchical levels and job types within the healthcare organization. The average participant┬┐s age was 38, and each participant had been employed by the company an average of seven years. None were doctors. After being placed in discussion groups, they openly discussed sexual harassment and confirmed what some scientists have argued - sexual harassment is more about power than sex, Dougherty said. In fact, moderators never asked participants to address the issue of power.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


April 2, 2007, 10:14 PM CT

Primary Medical Care For Children With Autism

Primary Medical Care For Children With Autism
Children with autism do not receive the same quality of primary care as children with other special health care needs, as per research from the University of Minnesota Medical School.

A study reported in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine observed that parents of children with autism were less likely to report that their children received the type of primary care advocated by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) when in comparison to parents of children with other special health care needs. The "medical home model," which is defined by the AAP as accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family-centered, compassionate, culturally effective, and coordinated with specialized services was used as a measure for ideal primary care of children.

"This study shows that children with autism are less likely to receive the type of primary medical care that we hope for all children," says principal investigator Allison Brachlow, M.D., research fellow at the Department of Pediatrics. "With increasing numbers of children diagnosed with autism, it is imperative to understand how to provide optimal care for these children".

Specifically, Brachlow observed that parents of children with autism were less likely to report their childs care was family-centered, comprehensive, or coordinated. For example, parents of children with autism were less likely to report that their childs primary care provider spent adequate time with them, offered understandable explanations, or discussed outside services, such as speech and occupational therapies. Furthermore, parents of children with autism were more likely to report difficulties obtaining subspecialty care, such as referrals to a gastroenterologist or other subspecialty doctor.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


April 1, 2007, 9:21 PM CT

Actigraphy to assess and manage sleep disorders

Actigraphy to assess and manage sleep disorders
Actigraphy, the use of a portable device that records movement over extended periods of time, and has been used extensively in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms, provides an acceptably accurate estimate of sleep patterns in normal, healthy adult populations and in-patients suspected of certain sleep disorders, as per practice parameters reported in the April 1st issue of the journal SLEEP.

The practice parameters, authored by the American Academy of Sleep Medicines (AASM) Standards of Practice Committee, were developed as a guide to the appropriate use of actigraphy, both as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of sleep disorders and as an outcome measure of therapy efficacy in clinical settings with appropriate patient populations.

Actigraphy is indicated to assist in the evaluation of patients with advanced sleep phase syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and shift work disorder. Additionally, there is some evidence to support the use of actigraphy in the evaluation of patients suspected of jet lag disorder and non-24 hour sleep/wake syndrome. Further, when polysomnography is not available, actigraphy is indicated to estimate total sleep time in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

In patients with insomnia and hypersomnia, there is evidence to support the use of actigraphy in the characterization of circadian rhythms and sleep patterns and disturbances. In assessing response to treatment, actigraphy has proven useful as an outcome measure in patients with circadian rhythms and insomnia.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 29, 2007, 10:35 PM CT

Should single parents stay that way?

Should single parents stay that way?
In an age when cohabitation and divorce are common, single parents concerned about the developmental health of their children may want to choose new partners slowly and deliberately, new research from The Johns Hopkins University suggests.

The reason for taking your time? The more transitions children go through in their living situation, the more likely they are to act out, Johns Hopkins sociologists Paula Fomby and Andrew Cherlin report. They also observed that the effect of family upheaval on children varies by race.

In their paper, "Family Instability and Child Well-Being," reported in the recent issue of the American Sociological Review, Fomby and Cherlin note that with each breakup, divorce, remarriage or new cohabitation, there is a period of adjustment as parents, partners, and children establish their places in a new family setting. Studying a nationally representative sample of mothers and their children, the scientists observed that children who go through frequent transitions are more likely to have behavioral problems than children raised in stable two-parent families and maybe even more than those in stable single-parent families.

Looking at children's scores on a mother-reported assessment of behavior problems with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (similar to how an IQ test is scored), the authors observed that a child who experienced three transitions would have a behavior problems score about 6 points higher in comparison to a child who had experienced no transitions. Experiencing multiple transitions was also linked to children's more frequent delinquent behavior, including vandalism, theft and truancy.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


March 28, 2007, 10:08 PM CT

Child's play is serious study of cause and effect

Child's play is serious study of cause and effect
It's not child's play to Laura E. Schulz, assistant professor of brain and cognitive sciences at MIT, to figure out what child's play is all about.

Schulz spoke March 21 at an MIT Museum Soap Box event, "Twisting the Lion's Tail: Exploratory Play and Children's Causal Learning".

Soap Box is a series of salon-style, early-evening conversations with researchers and engineers in the news, a public forum for debate about ideas and issues in science and technology.

The theory of cause and effect is fundamental to our understanding of the world. However, despite almost universal agreement that children learn about cause and effect through exploratory play, little is known about how children's play might support accurate causal learning, Schulz said.

"One of the deep mysteries of cognitive science is how we predict the future and how we explain the past and intervene in the present," she said. Causal reasoning even pervades our emotional lives when we speculate about why someone has a certain expression on her face or why a friend or colleague said what he did.

Causation in a nutshell: If you change this, all else being equal, something else changes. From earliest infancy and across all species, action and effect are correlated. Anyone who owns a pet knows that an animal quickly learns that opening a certain food container means dinner is on the way.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 28, 2007, 10:02 PM CT

Possible Genetic Trigger For Schizophrenia

Possible Genetic Trigger For Schizophrenia
A study led by researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill may have identified a molecular mechanism involved in the development of schizophrenia.

In studying the postmortem brain tissue of adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, the scientists observed that levels of certain gene-regulating molecules called microRNAs were lower among schizophrenia patients than in persons who were free of psychiatric illness.

"In a number of genetic diseases, such as Huntington's disease or cystic fibrosis, the basis is a gene mutation that leads to a malformed protein. But with other complex inherited disorders such as schizophrenia, a number of cancers, and diabetes we find not mutated proteins, but correctly formed proteins in incorrect amounts," said study lead author and UNC professor of psychiatry Dr. Diana Perkins.

The research appears this week in the online edition of the journal Genome Biology. "To our knowledge this study is the first to associate altered expression of microRNAs with schizophrenia," the authors stated.

Since the 1950s, researchers have known that the genetic code stored in DNA is first transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) which is then the template from which the body's protein building blocks are made. MicroRNAs are a newly discovered class of mRNA that does not carry the code for a protein. Instead, these tiny strands of RNA act by binding to matching pieces of the protein coding mRNA, thus preventing the translation of mRNA to protein. When a cell needs certain proteins, the microRNAs may disconnect, thus allowing protein expression to resume.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 22, 2007, 4:59 AM CT

Phone-based therapy for depression

Phone-based therapy for depression
When people receive brief telephone-based psychotherapy soon after starting on antidepressant medication, strong positive effects may continue 18 months after their first session. So concludes a Group Health study in the April Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

This paper describes one more year of follow-up since a 2004 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) report on the same random sample of Group Health patients.

With close to 400 patients, this is the largest study yet of psychotherapy delivered over the telephone, said Evette J. Ludman, PhD, senior research associate, Group Health Center for Health Studies, the papers lead author. Its also the first to study the effectiveness of combining phone-based treatment with antidepressant drug therapy as provided in everyday medical practice.

Long-term positive effects of initially adding phone-based treatment included improvements in patients symptoms of depression and satisfaction with their care, said Ludman. At 18 months, 77 percent of those who got phone-based treatment (but only 63 percent of those receiving regular care) reported their depression was much or very much improved. Those who received phone-based treatment were slightly better at taking their antidepressant medicine as recommended, but that did not account for most of their improvement. And effects were stronger for patients with moderate to severe depression than for those with mild depression.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35  

Did you know?
Too little evidence exists to recommend or rule out estrogen as a treatment for schizophrenia in women, a new review of studies finds.People diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer distorted perceptions of reality and hallucinations. Today, estrogen is strictly an experimental therapy for the psychotic symptoms associated with the mental illness.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of psychology news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.