MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of psychology news blog


Go Back to the main psychology news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Psychology News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


January 10, 2007, 8:46 PM CT

People With Mental Health Disabilities

People With Mental Health Disabilities
Sixteen years after Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), people with psychiatric disabilities are faring worse in court cases against employers for discrimination than are people with physical disabilities, scientists have found in a national study.

"People with psychiatric disabilities were less likely to receive a monetary award or job-related benefit, more likely to feel as though they were not treated fairly during the legal proceedings and more likely to believe they received less respect in court," said Jeffrey Swanson, Ph.D., a study investigator and an associate professor of psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center.

"When people with disabilities sue their employers for discriminating against them, they are hoping to achieve a tangible result, such as getting their job back or receiving some monetary compensation," Swanson said. "But that's not the only thing that matters. They want to be heard and treated fairly. Sometimes that alone can signal victory for a plaintiff, but if that doesn't happen, it can add insult to injury."

The findings are reported in the current issue (Volume 66, Issue 1) of the Maryland Law Review. The research was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.

The scientists said the study is the first to examine how individuals with psychiatric disabilities fare in the court system.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 26, 2006, 6:23 PM CT

Why Video Games Are So Addicting?

Why Video Games Are So Addicting?
Ever wondered why those video games are so addictive? Now scientists have some answers for you.

Kids and adults will stay glued to video games this holiday season because the fun of playing actually is rooted in fulfilling their basic psychological needs.

Psychology experts at the University of Rochester, in collaboration with Immersyve, Inc., a virtual environment think tank, asked 1,000 gamers what motivates them to keep playing. The results reported in the journal Motivation and Emotion this month suggest that people enjoy video games because they find them intrinsically satisfying.

"We think there's a deeper theory than the fun of playing," says Richard M. Ryan, a motivational psychology expert at the University and lead investigator in the four new studies about gaming. Players reported feeling best when the games produced positive experiences and challenges that connected to what they know in the real world.

The research observed that games can provide opportunities for achievement, freedom, and even a connection to other players. Those benefits trumped a shallow sense of fun, which doesn't keep players as interested.

"It's our contention that the psychological 'pull' of games is largely due to their capacity to engender feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness," says Ryan. The scientists think that some video games not only motivate further play but "also can be experienced as enhancing psychological wellness, at least short-term," he says.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 20, 2006, 4:41 AM CT

Impulsiveness Linked To Brain's Reward Center

Impulsiveness Linked To Brain's Reward Center
If you are acting lately very impulsively now you can blame on your brain. A new imaging study shows that our brains react with varying sensitivity to reward and suggests that people most susceptible to impulse&mdashthose who need to buy it, eat it, or have it, nowshow the greatest activity in a reward center of the brain. The study appears in the December 20 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience

In their study of 45 subjects, Ahmad Hariri, PhD, and his colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh and collaborators at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and the University of Chicago showed that activity in the ventral striatum, a core component of the brain's reward circuitry, correlated with individuals' impulsiveness.

"These data are exciting because they begin to unravel individual differences in brain organization underlying differences in complex psychological constructs, such as 'impulsivity,' which may contribute to the propensity to addiction," says Terry E. Robinson, PhD, of the University of Michigan biopsychology program.

The Hariri team tested the subjects on two computer-based tasks. First, participants indicated their preferences in a series of immediate-versus-delayed, hypothetical monetary rewards. They chose between receiving an amount from 10 cents to $105 that day and receiving $100 at one of seven points up to five years in the future. "Switch points"the value at which they were equally likely to choose getting money today as getting $100 at a future point in timewere calculated for each person.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 17, 2006, 9:39 PM CT

Divorce does not spell doom at Christmas

Divorce does not spell doom at Christmas
While it may be assumed that 'Peace and goodwill' are out of the question for divorced or separated parents at Christmas, new research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) suggests that parents should not despair.

The study shows that, over time, festivities replace hostilities for the vast majority of families. Researcher, Dr Jennifer Flowerdew commented "Despite the difficulties that arise in the immediate aftermath of relationship break-down, our study shows that Christmas is still seen as the time when families focus on what unites them rather than what divides them".

Findings show that in divorced families, similar to other families, Christmas is a time when people are acutely aware of the emotional significance of 'family' and will seek to forge, renew or strengthen those ties that they value.

As Dr Flowerdew explains: 'For all our families, Christmas continues to symbolise 'time out' from the pressures linked to paid work and life outside the domestic sphere, and 'time in' with children, parents, wider kin and friends. As such, it is seen as a time to prioritise family connections and relegate its divisions.'.

These findings result from a re-analysis of data from prior research which followed a sample of divorced or separated parents and their children over a nine year period. The research is based on the view that family change is a process rather than a one off event, and that one of the best ways to understand this is to track family members over time, exploring their changing experiences and the changing nature of their relationships.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 17, 2006, 9:35 PM CT

Brain Can Recover From Alcoholic Damage

Brain Can Recover From Alcoholic Damage
The findings, published recently (18 December 2006) in the online edition of the journal Brain [1], used sophisticated scanning technology and computer software to measure how brain volume, form and function changed over six to seven weeks of abstinence from alcohol in 15 alcohol dependent patients (ten men, five women).

The scientists from Gera number of, the UK, Switzerland and Italy measured the patients' brain volume at the beginning of the study and again after about 38 days of sobriety, and they observed that it had increased by an average of nearly two per cent during this time. In addition, levels of two chemicals, which are indicators for how well the brain's nerve cells and nerve sheaths are constituted, rose significantly. The increase of the nerve cell marker correlated with the patients performing better in a test of attention and concentration. Only one patient seemed to continue to lose some brain volume, and this was also the patient who had been an alcoholic for the longest time.

The leader of the research, Dr Andreas Bartsch from the University of Wuerzburg, Gera number of, said: "The core message from this study is that, for alcoholics, abstinence pays off and enables the brain to regain some substance and to perform better. However, our research also provides evidence that the longer you drink excessively, the more you risk losing this capacity for regeneration. Therefore, alcoholics must not put off the time when they decide to seek help and stop drinking; the sooner they do it, the better".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 13, 2006, 6:41 PM CT

Growing Up In Bad Neighborhood

Growing Up In Bad Neighborhood
There's good news for children growing up in bad neighborhoods in a comprehensive study led by nationally renowned University of Colorado at Boulder sociology Professor Delbert Elliott.

The 8-year effort analyzing the successful development of children in different kinds of neighborhoods in Denver and Chicago observed that children growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods were doing much better than expected. The rate of successful development for children from the best neighborhoods was 63 percent while the success rate for children living in high-poverty, disadvantaged neighborhoods was 52 percent.

"There's an 11-point difference between our worst neighborhoods and our best neighborhoods," said Elliott, director of the CU-Boulder Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. "That's very surprising".

"The idea that living in high-poverty, disorganized, disadvantaged neighborhoods is kind of a death sentence for kids is clearly not the case," he said. "We're getting kids coming out of those neighborhoods that are doing quite well".

The examination of neighborhoods was one of four integrated studies launched by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation's Network on Successful Adolescent Development. The portion of the study conducted by Elliott and colleagues looked at neighborhoods, while three other teams focused on family and school influences on development, and youth development in rural farming areas.........

Posted by: Janet      Permalink         Source


December 7, 2006, 9:41 PM CT

The Friendship Clinic

The Friendship Clinic
A number of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder suffer through a range of problems, from poor grades to poor relations with parents and teachers. But more than half of these children also have serious problems making friends. Too often they live lonely lives, never learning to develop the social skills they need to make friends as children or as adults.

"Children with ADHD often are peer-rejected, and their difficulties multiply as they grow to adulthood," said Amori Yee Mikami, assistant professor of psychology and principal investigator for a new clinical study designed to help children with ADHD become better at making friends.

"Children with ADHD often grow up with depression and relationship problems, some may develop criminal behavior and substance abuse problems," Mikami said. "There can be a spiral of failure that is partly the result of not having learned to make and keep friends as children".

About 5 percent of school-age children are affected by ADHD. Symptoms include a short attention span, poor organization, excessive talking, disruptive and aggressive behavior, restlessness and irritability. Children with ADHD often are uncooperative and may make their own rules.

"These symptoms get in the way of making and keeping friends," Mikami said. "The child with ADHD can become stigmatized, known as 'the bad kid,' and this can lead to more inappropriate behavior. It can become a vicious cycle resulting in more social isolation".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 6, 2006, 8:33 PM CT

How We Put Stress Into Words

How We Put Stress Into Words
How does a child learn that the stress is on the second syllable of giraffe, and on the first of zebra?.

Is it memory, the structure of the word itself or clues provided by the sounds in the word?.

New research by psychology expert Dr Padraic Monaghan, of the University of York, will try to answer the question. He is leading a new project to study the mechanism of language processing that governs how stress is assigned in words.

The research findings may help in the therapy of reading difficulties and assist in learning a second language, as well as potentially helping recovery after brain injury.

In a joint study with social researchers at Charles Sturt University, in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, he will examine what role the mechanism plays in learning to read. The research, which is supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Australian Research Council, will also focus on the variation between languages in the patterns of stress.

Dr Monaghan, of the University of York's Department of Psychology, said: "This research has implications for the developmental processes of reading and language development. It is critically important to be able to understand the process of reading in order to more thoroughly help children with difficulties in reading.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 6, 2006, 8:08 PM CT

Asian Immigrants Have Fewer Mental Health Problems

Asian Immigrants Have Fewer Mental Health Problems
Immigrants from Asia have lower rates of psychiatric disorders than American-born Asians and other native-born Americans, as per the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States.

The study showed different mental health patterns among women and men, with birthplace the key factor for women and English-language proficiency the main variable among men. Asian-American immigrant women were far less likely to suffer from a depressive, anxiety, substance abuse or psychiatric disorder in their lifetime than were U.S.-born women. Immigrant men who reported good or excellent English skills were less likely to have mental health problems than were those who had poorer English proficiency or American-born men.

"In comparison to all Americans, Asian Americans had lower lifetime rates of any disorder," said David Takeuchi, a sociologist and University of Washington social work professor and lead author of the study. "Roughly 48 percent of Americans will have some kind of a lifetime disorder. In our study, less than one in four Asian-American immigrants will have a disorder. However, that won't necessarily be the case for their children and grandchildren. If trends continue, rates for them will go up and that suggests that more investment is needed for prevention programs."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Permalink         Source


December 5, 2006, 9:26 PM CT

Virtual Reality Can Improve Memory

Virtual Reality Can Improve Memory
Conventional wisdom tells us that experience is the best teacher. But a new study of virtual marketing strategies finds that this isn't always true. Ann E. Schlosser (University of Washington) tested how well people used a camera after learning about its functions two different ways: either through an interactive virtual rendition or through text and static pictures. She observed that though virtual experiences improved people's memories of the camera's functions, it also increased false positives that is, more people believed it could do things that it couldn't do.

"Eventhough object interactivity may improve memory of associations in comparison to static pictures and text, it may lead to the creation of vivid internally-generated recollections that pose as memories," Schlosser writes in the recent issue of the Journal of Consumer Research.

In addition, though the virtual experience was better for retaining information, it didn't help test subjects recognize the actual items when presented in real life: "The benefits of learning via virtual experience may come with costs: the ease of generating mental images may create later confusion regarding whether a retrieved mental image waccording toceived or imagined," she writes.

Schlosser also warns that while it might seem advantageous if consumers think a product has features it doesn't actually have, this can actually lead to customer dissatisfaction. She explains, "Consumers who discover that the product does not have these attributes will likely feel misled by the company".........

Posted by: Daniel      Permalink         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31  

Did you know?
Too little evidence exists to recommend or rule out estrogen as a treatment for schizophrenia in women, a new review of studies finds.People diagnosed with schizophrenia suffer distorted perceptions of reality and hallucinations. Today, estrogen is strictly an experimental therapy for the psychotic symptoms associated with the mental illness.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of psychology news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.