MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog


Go Back to the main research news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Research News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


May 27, 2008, 9:04 PM CT

New Cancer Stem Cell Driving Metastatic Tumors

New Cancer Stem Cell Driving Metastatic Tumors
The molecular profile of cancer stem cells that initiate metastatic colon tumors is significantly different from those responsible for primary tumors, as per new research from a team at Weill Cornell Medical College.

Cancer scientists have long believed that a protein called CD133 identifies a population of cancer stem cells (so-called CD133+ cells), the only subset of cells that are responsible for tumor initiation. But in the experiment, in which immunocompromised mice were injected with human metastatic colon cancer, the Weill Cornell team discovered that cancer cells that do not express CD133 can also spur metastatic disease.

"In fact, metastatic tumors originating with these CD133- cells are more aggressive than those spurred by CD133+ cells," says study senior author Dr. Shahin Rafii, the Arthur B. Belfer Professor in Genetic Medicine and director of the Ansary Center for Stem Cell Therapeutics at Weill Cornell. Dr. Rafii is also a noted investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "Our discovery shows that metastatic and primary cancer may not initiate in the same way. This could have significant implications for research going forward - we believe the discovery opens up new avenues of investigation in cancer stem cell biology".

The findings were released as a special "highlighted" article in the May 22 online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


May 26, 2008, 8:05 PM CT

Natural compounds in cocoa and type 2 diabetes

 Natural compounds in cocoa and type 2 diabetes
Cocoa
Researchers have observed that consuming cocoa flavanols naturally occurring compounds in cocoa may offer a benefit to those affected by type-2 diabetes.

Consuming a cocoa flavanol-rich beverage daily may have the potential to positively impact the blood vessel dysfunction linked to diabetes, suggests a first-of-its-kind study recently reported in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology by an international group of scientists. Study participants who regularly consumed a cocoa flavanol-rich beverage made using the Mars, Incorporated Cocoapro process experienced a 30 percent improvement in measured vessel function at the completion of a 30-day trial.

Poor blood vessel function is recognized as an early stage in the development process of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. For more than 20 million Americans living with diabetes, these vascular impairments can eventually lead to heart disease and stroke, the cause of death for two-thirds of those who suffer from diabetes. Despite good diabetes control and medical therapy, adults with the disease often continue to experience vascular dysfunction. This has led researchers on a search for novel medical or nutritional options to improve the health and quality of life for people with diabetes.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 22, 2008, 10:11 PM CT

Emerging role of infection in Alzheimer's disease

Emerging role of infection in Alzheimer's disease
Dr. Alzheimer
Amsterdam Many chronic diseases are in fact caused by one or more infectious agents. For example, stomach ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori, chronic lung disease in newborns and chronic asthma in adults are both caused by Mycoplasmas and Chlamydia pneumonia, while some other pathogens have been linked to atherosclerosis. The realization that pathogens can produce slowly progressive chronic diseases has opened new lines of research into Alzheimers disease.

In a special issue of the Journal of Alzheimers Disease published May 2008, guest editors Judith Miklossy, from The University of British Columbia, and Ralph N. Martins, from Edith Cowan University and Hollywood Private Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, and a group of experts explore this exciting topic.

Alzheimers disease (AD), the most frequent cause of dementia, is a form of amyloidosis. It has been known for a century that dementia, brain atrophy and amyloidosis can be caused by chronic bacterial infections, namely by Treponema pallidum in the atrophic form of general paresis in syphilis. Bacteria and viruses are powerful stimulators of inflammation. It was suggested by Alois Alzheimer and colleagues a century ago that microorganisms may be contributors in the generation of senile plaques in AD.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


May 22, 2008, 9:51 PM CT

Gene may shed light on neurological disorders

Gene may shed light on neurological disorders
In our brains, where millions of signals move across a network of neurons like runners in a relay race, all the critical baton passes take place at synapses. These small gaps between nerve cell endings have to be just the right size for messages to transmit properly. Synapses that grow too large or too small are linked to motor and cognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, and other neurological disorders.

In a finding that sheds light on this system, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe a gene that controls the proper development of synapses, which could help explain how the process works and why it sometimes goes wrong.

Reporting today in the journal Neuron, a team of geneticists in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences reveal the role of a gene in fruit flies called "nervous wreck" that prevents synapses from overgrowing by damping the effects of a pro-growth signal. Mutations in a human version of "nervous wreck" have been associated with a severe genetic developmental disability, and these findings may eventually help researchers develop therapys for this and other neurological disorders.

"The precise regulation of synaptic growth - not too much and not too little - is a complex biological process," says Kate O'Connor-Giles, a postdoctoral fellow in the genetics department who led the study. "We really need to have a deep understanding of how all the factors involved are working together to develop rational therapys for neurological disorders linked to aberrant synaptic growth".........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


May 21, 2008, 8:57 PM CT

How common vaccine booster works

How common vaccine booster works
In an online paper in the journal Nature, Yale University scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, explain how a common ingredient in a number of vaccines stimulates and interacts with the immune system to help provide protection against infectious diseases.

Vaccines must possess not only the bacterial or viral components that serve as targets of protective immune responses, but also ingredients to kick start those immune responses. In a number of vaccines, the bacterial or viral components themselves have this capability. For other vaccines, the immune system requires an added boost. Adjuvants are those substances added to a vaccine to help stimulate the immune system and make the vaccine more effective.

Currently the only vaccine adjuvants licensed for general use in the United States are aluminum hydroxide/phosphate formulations, known as alum. Eventhough alum has been used to boost the immune responses to vaccines for decades, no one has known how it worked.

In this paper, the Yale team, led by Richard Flavell, M.D., Ph.D., and Stephanie Eisenbarth, M.D., Ph.D., examined the immune system pathway and cell receptors used by alum. A number of microbial compounds function as adjuvants by stimulating Toll-like receptors. These receptors identify microbial invaders and alert the body to the presence of a disease-causing agent, or pathogen. Alum, however, does not stimulate Toll-like receptors. The Yale team observed that alum stimulates clusters of proteins called inflammasomes, found inside certain cells. Inflammasomes respond to stresses such as infection or injury by releasing immune cell signaling proteins called cytokines. Inflammasomes are a component of the innate immune system that operates in parallel with, but separate from, Toll-like receptors, also part of the innate immune system.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


May 21, 2008, 8:29 PM CT

Genetics of fat storage in cells

Genetics of fat storage in cells
New research by the Gladstone Institutes of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), has revealed the genetic determinants of fat storage in cells, which may lead to a new understanding of and potential therapys for obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. While researchers have long understood that lipid droplets contribute to fat build up in cells, the genes involved in droplet biology have been a focus of extensive research.

As per a research findings published in Nature, researchers in the laboratories of Drs. Robert V. Farese, Jr., of Gladstone and UCSF, and Peter Walter, of UCSF, devised a genetic screen to identify genes responsible for fat storage in cell of fruit flies, and potentially other species.

For some time, we have been studying the enzymes that make fats, said Dr. Farese, senior investigator. But clearly, we need to know a lot more about the most basic processes that regulate cellular fat storage to be able to make progress on some very serious human diseases.

To identify novel genes involved in fat storage, GICD scientist Dr. Yi Guo, and Dr. Tobias Walter, formerly of Dr. Walters laboratory and now of the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Gera number of, initiated a major discovery project, in which they used RNAi screens to individually inactivate all the genes in cells from fruit flies. Basic cellular processes in humans are highly conserved in cells from fruit flies, so the results should mostly be applicable to human biology. Drs. Guo and Walther completed the initial survey and have now begun to study in detail the genes that have the most striking effects on fat storage in cells.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 20, 2008, 9:53 PM CT

Determining genetic signature of lung tumors

Determining genetic signature of lung tumors
The first U.S. clinical trial using genetic screening to identify lung tumors likely to respond to targeted therapies supports the use of those drugs as first-line therapy rather than after standard chemotherapy has failed. While the study led by Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center researchers observed that upfront gefitinib (Iressa) therapy considerably improved the outcomes for non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC), additional research is mandatory before such a strategy can be used for routine therapy planning. The report appears in the May 20 Journal of Clinical Oncology.

This is a pivotal clinical trial that demonstrates the power of personalized medicine in lung cancer therapy, says Lecia Sequist, MD, MPH, of the MGH Cancer Center, who led the study. It is an exciting glimpse into what we hope is the future of cancer care. Instead of a one size fits all treatment, we are moving towards finding the best therapy for each patient.

The most common form of lung cancer, NSCLC is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. Until recently, there were no therapy options for NSCLC patients in whom chemotherapy failed. Iressa, which disables the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the surface of lung cancer cells, was approved in 2003 for therapy of NSCLC even though it shrank tumors in less than 15 percent of patients because, in those whom it did help, responses were rapid and dramatic.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


May 20, 2008, 9:49 PM CT

Biomedical Imaging in Palm of Hands

Biomedical Imaging in Palm of Hands
The new mosaic narrowband filter functions at four or more wavelengths from visual to infrared with 20nm bandwidth in a single exposure. The wallet-size mulitspectral imaging system could offer significant cost savings, increased reliability and instantan
Scientists at Georgia Tech have developed a narrowband filter mosaic that will expand the uses and functionality of multispectral imaging-a technology that enables subsurface characterization. The new, single-exposure imaging tool could significantly improve point-of-care medical and forensic imaging by empowering front line clinicians with no specialized training to detect and assess, in real-time, the severity of bruises and erythema, regardless of patient skin pigmentation or available lighting.

In addition to this application, the filter could potentially offer a reliabile, low-cost method to instantaneously classify military targets, sort produce, inspect product quality in manufacturing, detect contamination in foods, perform remote sensing in mining, monitor atmospheric composition in environmental engineering and diagnose early stage cancer and tumors.

The technology was developed in Georgia Tech's Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA) as part of a project to design a portable erythema and bruise-detection technology that will enhance early prevention and diagnosis of pressure ulcers, a secondary complication for people with impaired mobility and sensation.

Currently, clinical assessment of bruises is subjective and unreliable, particularly when on persons with darkly pigmented skin. Improved imaging can lead to earlier intervention which is vital in cases of suspected physical abuse. Similarly, early detection of erythema can trigger preventive care that can stop progression into pressure ulcers.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


May 19, 2008, 6:41 PM CT

Cause of lupus

Cause of lupus
Scientists at Wake Forest University have uncovered evidence that the abnormal editing of gene messages in a type of white blood cell may be behind the development of lupus. Researchers hope the finding will lead to earlier diagnosis, a way to monitor patients response to treatment and possibly a new way to treat the disease.

The findings, reported online in the journal Immunology, involve an enzyme that edits and modifies the messages of genes before the protein-making process. It is protein molecules that carry out the instructions of our genes and determine how an organism looks, how well its body metabolizes food or fights infection, and even how it behaves.

Dama Laxminarayana, Ph.D., assistant professor of internal medicine and senior author, said that in systemic lupus erythematosus, the normal editing process goes awry, causing a shift in the balance of proteins that results in impaired functions in T cells, a type of white blood cell involved in the regulation of immune functions.

Impaired T cell function is a hallmark of lupus, a complex chronic autoimmune disorder that can range from a non-malignant skin disorder to severe, life-threatening multisystem disease. It primarily affects women in the child-bearing years and is more common in blacks.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


May 19, 2008, 6:36 PM CT

Tracking influenza's every movement

Tracking influenza's every movement
Its the case of the missing flu virus. When the flu isnt making people sick, it seems to just vanish. Yet, every year, everywhere on Earth, it reappears in the appropriate season and starts its attack. So where does it go when it disappears? Does it hibernate, lying dormant in a few people and preparing for its next onslaught? Does it bounce around from the Northern hemisphere to the Southern hemisphere and back, following the seasons?.

Neither, it turns out. The viruss breeding grounds are in Asia, a crew of virus-hunters has found, and it then teems out to take over the world anew each year. New varieties almost always evolve in Asia and then hitch a ride with travelers, spreading to Europe, Australia and North America and finally to South America, where they die away.

The work may make the flu vaccine even better than it already is. Because the flu virus is constantly evolving, researchers meet at the World Health Organization twice a year to decide whether to update the vaccine. Their job is made harder because they have to decide on a formulation a year in advance of when the flu will actually hit, to allow time for the vaccine to be manufactured and administered. So they have to predict which of the strains of flu virus are going to be causing the most disease a year down the line.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68  

Did you know?
Scientists at Yale have brought to light a mechanism that regulates the way an internal organelle, the Golgi apparatus, duplicates as cells prepare to divide, according to a report in Science Express.Graham Warren, professor of cell biology, and colleagues at Yale study Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes Sleeping Sickness. Like a number of parasites, it is exceptionally streamlined and has only one of each internal organelle, making it ideal for studying processes of more complex organisms that have a number of copies in each cell.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.