MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog


Go Back to the main research news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Research News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


June 1, 2007, 9:37 PM CT

Innovative Smallpox Vaccine Research Study

Innovative Smallpox Vaccine Research Study
University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UHCMC) and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine are part of a nationwide research study to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new smallpox vaccine geared toward adults ages 18 to 34 who have never been vaccinated against the disease. The study is the first of its type in Northeast Ohio.

The current FDA-approved vaccine, Dryvax®, is not recommended for use on everyone because of the potential for serious side effects in certain individuals. "For example, the current vaccine cannot be used in immune-compromised individuals, such as patients with HIV or individuals with certain skin conditions such as eczema," says Robert A. Salata, M.D., chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and UHCMC.

The new vaccine, IMVAMUNE®, is different from Dryvax® in that it contains a more weakened form of the live-virus within the vaccine.

"Because the vaccine is weakened, the side effects should be minimized enough to give the vaccine to all individuals, even those whose immune systems are suppressed," says Dr. Salata. "Our hope is that the new vaccine will be a safer alternative to the current vaccine".

UHCMC and the School of Medicine will act as a subunit of St. Louis University's Center for Vaccine Development, which is one of seven national testing sites known as Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs), designated by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


May 30, 2007, 0:03 AM CT

'Nurse cells' make life and death decisions

'Nurse cells' make life and death decisions
Thymocytes are taken up by thymic "nurse" cells.
Credit: Jerry Guyden, CUNY
"Nurse cells" play an important role in deciding which developing infection-fighting cells, called T cells, live and which die, as per research funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and published in the recent issue of the journal Experimental Biology and Medicine.

The infection-fighting cells, known as thymocytes or T cells, live in the thymus, an organ in the upper portion of the chest. Loss of the thymus results in severe immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infection. The function of T cells produced by the thymus is to recognize harmful invaders. Once invaders have been identified, T cells then attempt to eliminate disease-infected cells.

"In early studies, it was suggested that thymic nurse cells only removed non-functional thymocytes," said Eve Barak, program director in NSF's Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology. "This research shows that nurse cells are performing a much bigger role in the thymus than we thought".

Thymic nurse cells were given their name because of their close relationship with thymocytes. These nurse cells have been reported to take up as a number of as 50 destined-to-die thymocytes into their own cell bodies.

Thymic nurse cells were discovered in 1980. Their existence was debated because a number of researchers found it difficult to think that a cell could internalize another cell, said Jerry Guyden, a biologist at the City College of New York and lead researcher.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


May 29, 2007, 11:56 PM CT

A living memory chip

A living memory chip
A new experiment has shown that it's possible to store multiple rudimentary memories in an artificial culture of live neurons. The ability to record information in a manmade network of neurons is a step toward a cyborg-like integration of living material into memory chips. The advance also may help neurologists to understand how our brains learn and store information.

Itay Baruchi and Eshel Ben-Jacob of Tel-Aviv University used an array of electrodes to monitor the firing patterns in a network of linked neurons. As prior studies have shown, simply linking the neurons together leads them to spontaneously fire in coordinated patterns. In the study published this month in the journal Physical Review E the scientists observed that they could deliberately create additional firing patterns that coexist with the spontaneous patterns. They claim that these new firing patterns essentially represent simple memories stored in the neuron network.

To create a new memory in the neurons, the scientists introduced minute amounts of a chemical stimulant into the culture at a selected location. The stimulant induced a second firing pattern, starting at that location. The new firing pattern in the culture along coexisted with the original pattern. Twenty-four hours later, they injected another round of stimulants at a new location, and a third firing pattern emerged. The three memory patterns persisted, without interfering with each other, for over forty hours.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


May 29, 2007, 11:54 PM CT

Potential for a broadly-protective HIV vaccine

Potential for a broadly-protective HIV vaccine
New research conducted at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) suggests that it may be possible to develop a vaccine that protects against the myriad strains of the HIV virus. HIV is extremely variable, so an effective vaccine may need to stimulate the body to produce cross-reactive antibodies that will neutralize multiple viral strains. These results demonstrate that induction of truly broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies may be an achievable goal. This groundbreaking study titled: Extensively Cross-Reactive Anti-HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Induced by gp140 Immunization appears this week in the Early Edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences http://www.pnas.org/papbyrecent.shtml.

To be effective, an HIV vaccine must induce the body to produce cross-reactive antibodies that can neutralize multiple strains. USU Professors CAPT Gerald Quinnan, Jr., M.D., USPHS, and Christopher Broder, Ph.D., and their colleagues at USU attempted to elicit these broad-range antibodies in an animal model by immunizing with a particular HIV-1 surface protein, designated R2 gp140, and an immune response-boosting component. The scientists tested antibodies generated by the immunizations to determine their effectiveness in neutralizing the infectivity of a variety of HIV-1 strains. Antibodies produced as a result of immunization neutralized all 48 strains of HIV-1 tested. The results are encouraging for vaccine development, because they showed that it is possible to elicit a broad-spectrum antibody response.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


May 23, 2007, 9:54 PM CT

Botulism bug has few genome wrinkles

Botulism bug has few genome wrinkles
The genome of the organism that produces the world's most lethal toxin is revealed today. This toxin is the one real weapon in the genome of Clostridium botulinum and less than 2 kg - the weight of two bags of sugar - is enough to kill every person on the planet. Very small amounts of the same toxin are used in medical therapys, one of which is known as Botox.

The genome sequence, reported in Genome Research, shows that C. botulinum doesn't have subtle tools to evade our human defences or tricky methods of acquiring resistance to antibiotics. It lives either as a dormant spore or as a scavenger of decaying animal materials in the soil, and doesn't interact with human or other large animal hosts for prolonged periods of time.

Occasionally it gets into a living animal, via contaminated food or open wounds, leading to infant botulism or wound botulism, both of which are serious human infections. The host can be quickly overpowered and, in some cases, killed by the toxin, and C. botulinum has a new food source.

"Eventhough in the same group as Clostridium difficile - the Cdiff superbug - C. botulinum has a genome that is remarkable because it is so stable, "commented Dr Mohammed Sebaihia, lead author on the paper from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Unlike Cdiff, in which more than 10% of genes have been acquired from other bacteria, there is almost no footprint of these in C. botulinum".........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


May 23, 2007, 9:53 PM CT

Bronchial thermoplasty for severe asthma patients

Bronchial thermoplasty for severe asthma patients
The Alair Bronchial Thermoplasty System from Asthmatx
Credit: Asthmatx
A medical device company that has developed a catheter-based procedure for the therapy of asthma, announced recently that positive results from the Research in Severe Asthma (RISA) Trial were reported today at the annual scientific assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) by Neil Thomson, MD, Professor of Respiratory Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland. Clinically and statistically significant improvements in pulmonary function, asthma control, and quality of life, as well as a reduction in use of rescue medications, were observed following the bronchial thermoplasty procedure in patients with severe asthma. Bronchial Thermoplasty is an innovative non-drug therapy for asthma under clinical investigation in the United States.

The RISA Trial was conducted at a total of eight hospitals, in three countries, and reviewed the safety and efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty in 32 adult subjects with severe persistent asthma who remained symptomatic despite taking regular asthma medications. In comparison to patients who received only standard asthma medications, patients who received the bronchial thermoplasty procedure and standard medications showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in pulmonary function, quality of life, and asthma control, and used less rescue medicine nearly 6 months following the procedure. One year following the therapy, 50% of bronchial thermoplasty treated patients were able to wean completely off oral corticosteroids (OCS), in comparison to 14% of patients who did not receive the therapy. Further, a greater overall reduction in OCS dose was observed at 52 weeks in the bronchial thermoplasty treated patients compared with those that did not receive therapy at 52 weeks, eventhough this difference didnt reach statistical significance. The study was not powered to show statistical significance in medicine changes.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 21, 2007, 10:42 AM CT

Lubiprostone For Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Lubiprostone For Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Image courtesy of abc.net.au
A new study demonstrated that the active ingredient in AMITIZA (lubiprostone), given 8 mcg twice a day, may improve symptom relief rates in adults with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). These results were presented as a late-breaker at Digestive Disease Week 2007, the largest annual international meeting of digestive disease specialists.

"In this study, patients receiving lubiprostone were nearly twice as likely to achieve an overall response from symptoms of IBS-C in comparison to those receiving placebo," said Douglas A. Drossman, M.D., primary investigator, UNC Center for Functional GI and Motility Disorders, University of North Carolina, and the Chair of the Rome Committee. "As a result, lubiprostone may represent an important therapy for IBS-C sufferers".

IBS is a condition that affects approximately 58 million Americans and accounts for 25-50 percent of referrals to gastroenterologists. IBS-C symptoms include abdominal pain or discomfort linked to defecation or a change in bowel habits with features of disordered defecation.

Lubiprostone is a novel selective chloride channel activator that has been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in many well-controlled clinical trials in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. Lubiprostone is marketed in the U.S. as AMITIZA, a 24-mcg gelcap that was approved for use for chronic idiopathic constipation in adults on January 31, 2006.........

Posted by: Sue      Read more         Source


May 17, 2007, 5:30 AM CT

Asthma patients have more options

Asthma patients have more options
People with mild asthma that is well-controlled with twice-daily use of inhaled steroids may be able to reduce inhaler use to once a day or switch to a daily pill as per new research conducted at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center and 20 other centers.

"This is good news for patients with mild, persistent asthma because it gives them more choices about how to manage their disease," said Stephen P. Peters, M.D., Ph.D., lead author and a professor of pediatrics, internal medicine-pulmonary and associate director of the Center for Human Genomics.

The study, involving 500 children and adults with mild asthma, was conducted by the American Lung Associations Asthma Clinical Research Centers. Its goal was to determine if patients whose symptoms are well controlled on twice daily inhaled corticosteroid can "step down" their medicine use. The results are published in the May 17 issue of the New England Journal (NEJM).

Asthma is considered mild, but persistent, when symptoms occur more than two times a week or cause the patient to awaken during the night more than twice a month. The standard therapy for mild-persistent asthma is twice-daily use of an inhaled steroid to prevent symptoms. Patients may also take additional drugs such as the inhaler albuterol, known as "rescue" treatment, to treat symptoms. A majority of people with asthma have mild disease, as per Peters.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


May 17, 2007, 5:22 AM CT

No magic tomato? No benefit to prostate cancer prevention

No magic tomato? No benefit to prostate cancer prevention
Tomatoes might be nutritious and tasty, but dont count on them to prevent prostate cancer. In the recent issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, scientists based at the National Cancer Institute and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center report that lycopene, an antioxidant predominately found in tomatoes, does not effectively prevent prostate cancer. In fact, the scientists noted an association between beta-carotene, an antioxidant correlation to lycopene, and an increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer.

As per the researchers, the study is one of the largest to evaluate the role of blood concentrations of lycopene and other carotenoid antioxidants in preventing prostate cancer. Study data were derived from over 28,000 men enrolled in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, an ongoing, randomized National Cancer Institute trial to evaluate cancer screening methods and to investigate early markers of cancer.

"It is disappointing, since lycopene might have offered a simple and inexpensive way to lower prostate cancer risk for men concerned about this common disease," said Ulrike Peters, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Unfortunately, this easy answer just does not work."

Prior studies suggested that a diet rich in lycopene protected against prostate cancer, spurring commercial and public interest in the antioxidant. Antioxidants protect against free radicals, highly reactive atoms and molecules that can damage DNA and other important molecules in the cell. Since free radical damage increases with age, there has been a long-held suspicion in the scientific community that free radical damage could increase the risk of prostate cancer, a disease that has been clearly linked to age.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


May 15, 2007, 11:22 PM CT

Alzheimer's weight gain initiative

Alzheimer's weight gain initiative
Swedish scientists have found a way to increase the weight of people with Alzheimer's, by improving communication and patient involvement, altering meal routines and providing a more homely eating environment.

During the three-month study, reported in the recent issue of Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13 of the 18 patients in the intervention group put on weight, compared with just two of the 15 patients in the control group.

Patients who gained weight also displayed improved intellectual abilities.

"Weight loss is a common issue among people with dementia and in particular Alzheimer's" explains lead researcher Anna-Greta Mamhidir from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden.

"Meal environment, communication difficulties, loss of independence and confusion are just some of the factors that appear to contribute to this problem.

"Malnutrition can also lead to other serious issues, such as increased infection rates, delayed wound healing and increased risk of hip fractures".

The aim of the study was to measure weight changes in patients with moderate and severe dementia and analyse whether providing staff training and a more supportive environment could lead to weight gain.

Two nursing home wards with similar staffing profiles and numbers of patients were selected. Both received meals from the same central kitchen.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46  

Did you know?
Scientists at Yale have brought to light a mechanism that regulates the way an internal organelle, the Golgi apparatus, duplicates as cells prepare to divide, according to a report in Science Express.Graham Warren, professor of cell biology, and colleagues at Yale study Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes Sleeping Sickness. Like a number of parasites, it is exceptionally streamlined and has only one of each internal organelle, making it ideal for studying processes of more complex organisms that have a number of copies in each cell.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.