MedicineWorld.Org
Your gateway to the world of medicine
Home
News
Cancer News
About Us
Cancer
Health Professionals
Patients and public
Contact Us
Disclaimer

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog


Go Back to the main research news blog

Subscribe To Health Blog RSS Feed  RSS content feed What is RSS feed?

Archives Of Research News Blog From Medicineworld.Org


April 13, 2007, 5:17 PM CT

How Microbes start immune response

How Microbes start immune response
Immune cells that are the bodys front-line defense dont necessarily rest quietly until invading bacteria lock onto receptors on their outside skins and rouse them to action, as previously thought. In a new paper, University of Michigan researchers describe their findings that bacteria can barge inside these guard cells and independently initiate a powerful immune response.

The study, published online ahead of print in the recent issue of the journal Immunity and accompanied by a special commentary, adds important new details to an emerging picture of how the body recognizes invading bacteria and responds. The work of the U-M team and scientists elsewhere now taking place in laboratory animal studies offers a different way of thinking about how best to design future human vaccines, as well as drugs that could more precisely target the bodys inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis and some other autoimmune diseases.

In our study, the presence of bacterial microbes inside the cell is what triggers the immune response. That creates a new perspective for developing new drugs, says senior author Gabriel Nunez, M.D., the Paul H. de Kruif professor of pathology at the U-M Medical School and a member of the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center.

For years, researchers have believed that when bacteria invade the body, they set off alarms in the immune system by interacting with receptors on a cells surface. But, now new studies are revealing that bacteria can also plunge inside immune system cells and trigger the immune response there. In the new study, Nunez team sheds light on one major pathway in which this process occurs.........

Posted by: Mark      Read more         Source


April 13, 2007, 4:57 PM CT

Hope For Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer's

Hope For Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer's
Research by faculty and staff at Rowan University, Glassboro, N.J.; the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; and Drexel University may lead to better diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimers disease.

In a $1.1-million National Institutes of Healths National Institute on Aging study that team members conducted during the last three years, they determined early Alzheimers could be diagnosed with a high rate of accuracy evaluating electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The study may lead to an earlier diagnosis, and therefore earlier therapy and improved quality of life, for people at the earliest stages of the disease.

As per the Alzheimers Association, the condition affects more than 5 million Americans, approximately 1.5 percent of the population. That number is only expected to grow.

Rowan University electrical and computer engineering associate professor Dr. Robi Polikar conducted the research with Dr. Christopher Clark, associate professor of neurology, associate director of the NIH-sponsored Alzheimer's Disease Center at Penn and director of the Penn Memory Center, and with Dr. John Kounios, a Drexel psychology professor.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


April 11, 2007, 10:27 PM CT

Key Player In Embryonic Muscle Development

Key Player In Embryonic Muscle Development
Muscle fibers are large cells that contain a number of nuclei. They begin, like all animal cells, as naive embryonic cells. These cells differentiate, producing intermediate cells called myoblasts that are now destined to become muscle. New myoblasts then seek out other myoblasts, and when they find each other, they stick together like best friends. In the final stage of muscle fiber development, the cell membranes of attached myoblasts open up and fuse together, forming one large, unified cell.

How myoblasts identify other myoblasts and how they cling together had been established, but the way that the cell membranes fuse into one has remained a mystery. Now, a study by Weizmann Institute researchers has shed light on this mystery. The study was carried out by research student Rada Massarwa and lab technician Shari Carmon under the guidance of Dr. Eyal Schejter and Prof. Ben-Zion Shilo of the Institute's Molecular Genetics Department, with help from Dr. Vera Shinder of the Electron Microscopy Unit. The cells' system for identifying other myoblasts and sticking to them consists of protein molecules that poke through the outer cell membrane one end pointing out and the other extending into the body of the cell. These recognition proteins anchor the cells together, but what makes myoblasts open their doors to each other and merge into one cell?........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


April 10, 2007, 8:42 PM CT

Nanoparticles improve delivery of medicines

Nanoparticles improve delivery of medicines
Tiny, biodegradable particles filled with medicine may also contain answers to some of the biggest human health problems, including cancer and tuberculosis. The secret is the size of the package.

Using an innovative technique they invented, a Princeton University-led research team has created particles that can deliver medicine deep into the lungs or infiltrate cancer cells while leaving normal ones alone. Only 100 to 300 nanometers wide -- more than 100 times thinner than a human hair -- the particles can be loaded with medicines or imaging agents, like gold and magnetite, that will enhance the detection capabilities of Computerized axial tomography scans and MRIs.

"The intersection of materials science and chemistry is allowing advances that were never before possible," said Robert Prud'homme, a Princeton chemical engineering professor and the director of a National Science Foundation-funded team of scientists at Princeton, the University of Minnesota and Iowa State University. "No one had a good route to incorporate drugs and imaging agents in nanoparticles".

Prud'homme will discuss the work April 11 in a talk titled "How Size Matters in the Retention of Nanomaterials in Tissue," to be given at the National Academy of Sciences meeting on Nanomaterials in Biology and Medicine in Washington, D.C.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


April 10, 2007, 6:06 PM CT

Protein Required For Two Neighboring Cells To Fuse

Protein Required For Two Neighboring Cells To Fuse
Working with fruit flies, researchers at Johns Hopkins have discovered a protein mandatory for two neighboring cells to fuse and become one "super cell."

Most cells enjoy their singular existence, but the strength and flexibility of muscles relies on hundreds or even thousands of super cells that make large-scale motion smooth and coordinated, such as flexion of a bicep.

The newly discovered protein, dubbed Solitary, coordinates the movement of tiny molecular delivery trucks to a cell's surface. Cells that lack Solitary stay, well, solitary. "They refuse to fuse," says Hopkins assistant professor of molecular biology and genetics Elizabeth Chen, Ph.D., whose report on the work is online this week in Developmental Cell.

Chen and her team studied fruit fly embryo muscles to find the molecular signals that tell two neighboring cells to join as one, plucking out for further study those embryos containing cells that refused to fuse.

They then compared the genetic sequences from healthy embryos with sequences from defective embryos to locate differences and identify the genes responsible for unfused muscle cells. In the process, they identified Solitary.

Chen's team next made a tool to see the Solitary protein, enabling them to track its localization under a fluorescent microscope. At each future fusion point between cells that they examined in the fly muscles, they saw concentrations of glowing clumps of Solitary protein.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


March 29, 2007, 10:03 PM CT

Omega-3 Fatty Acid And Alzheimer's Disease?

Omega-3 Fatty Acid And Alzheimer's Disease? Eating fish may help reduce the risk for dementia.
Nutritionists have long endorsed fish as part of a heart-healthy diet, and now some studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids found in the oil of certain fish may also benefit the brain by lowering the risk of Alzheimer's disease. In order to test whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, can impact the progression of Alzheimer's disease, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine and Saint Louis University School of Medicine will evaluate DHA in a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute on Aging (NIA).

The local effort is part of a nationwide consortium of leading Alzheimer's disease scientists supported by the NIA and coordinated by the University of California, San Diego. The trial will take place at 52 sites across the United States. It seeks 400 participants age 50 and older with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Joseph Quinn, M.D., associate professor of neurology at Oregon Health and Science University, is directing the national study. James Galvin, M.D., M.P.H., at Washington University School of Medicine, and George Grossberg, M.D., at Saint Louis University School of Medicine, will conduct the study locally.

Scientists will primarily evaluate whether taking DHA over a number of months slows both cognitive and functional decline in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's. During the 18-month clinical trial, researchers will measure the progress of the disease using standard tests for functional and cognitive change.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


March 28, 2007, 10:02 PM CT

Possible Genetic Trigger For Schizophrenia

Possible Genetic Trigger For Schizophrenia
A study led by researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill may have identified a molecular mechanism involved in the development of schizophrenia.

In studying the postmortem brain tissue of adults who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, the scientists observed that levels of certain gene-regulating molecules called microRNAs were lower among schizophrenia patients than in persons who were free of psychiatric illness.

"In a number of genetic diseases, such as Huntington's disease or cystic fibrosis, the basis is a gene mutation that leads to a malformed protein. But with other complex inherited disorders such as schizophrenia, a number of cancers, and diabetes we find not mutated proteins, but correctly formed proteins in incorrect amounts," said study lead author and UNC professor of psychiatry Dr. Diana Perkins.

The research appears this week in the online edition of the journal Genome Biology. "To our knowledge this study is the first to associate altered expression of microRNAs with schizophrenia," the authors stated.

Since the 1950s, researchers have known that the genetic code stored in DNA is first transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) which is then the template from which the body's protein building blocks are made. MicroRNAs are a newly discovered class of mRNA that does not carry the code for a protein. Instead, these tiny strands of RNA act by binding to matching pieces of the protein coding mRNA, thus preventing the translation of mRNA to protein. When a cell needs certain proteins, the microRNAs may disconnect, thus allowing protein expression to resume.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 27, 2007, 9:42 PM CT

Ring-around-the-cell

Ring-around-the-cell
Breaking down bone is a tough job. Yet, our bones undergo remodeling every day of our lives, as old material is cleared away so that new bone can form. In diseases such as osteoporosis, an imbalance in this process is responsible for the characteristic bone loss. New research at the Weizmann Institute of Science, which recently appeared in the online journal PLoS ONE, has revealed in unprecedented detail how the roving cells whose job is to digest bone seal off their work area as they get down to business.

The cells, called osteoclasts, have some unique features not seen in any other cell type. Osteoclasts move around the bone until they reach a site where they sense that their services are required, at which point they undergo a transformation called polarization. The polarized osteoclast sticks itself tightly to the bone, while an impermeable ring forms around the cell perimeter. This ring functions to keep the bone-eating acids and enzymes produced between the cell and the bone confined to the demolition site.

How does this ring form? To solve the mystery, Prof. Benjamin Geiger, Dean of Biology, and Prof. Lia Addadi of the Structural Biology Department, together with doctoral students Chen Luxenburg and Dafna Geblinger, and with the assistance of Dr. Eugenia Klein (electron microscopy unit) and Prof. Dorit Hanein and Karen Anderson of the Burnham Institute, San Diego, applied two different observation methods to samples of stripped-down, polarized osteoclasts: electron microscope imaging that allowed them to see fine details of the ring structure, and a light microscope method in which specific features glow. Because each method captures different information at a different scale, combining them was tricky, but the two together gave a much more extensive picture than either alone.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


March 27, 2007, 9:02 PM CT

One membrane, many frequencies

One membrane, many frequencies
Modern hearing aids, though quite sophisticated, still do not faithfully reproduce sound as hearing people perceive it. New findings at the Weizmann Institute of Science shed light on a crucial mechanism for discerning different sound frequencies and thus may have implications for the design of better hearing aids.

Research by Dr. Itay Rousso of the Weizmann Institutes Structural Biology Department, which recently appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), suggests that a thin structure in the inner ear called the tectorial membrane responds to different frequencies. This membrane communicates between the outer hair cells (which amplify sound in the form of mechanical vibrations) and the inner hair cells (which convert these mechanical vibrations to electrical signals and pass them on to the brain via the auditory nerve). If certain genes for this membrane are missing or damaged, total deafness ensues.

Rousso and research student Rachel Gueta, together with scientists at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, wanted to explore the mechanical properties of the tectorial membrane. Using an atomic force microscope, which probes surfaces with a fine microscopic needle, they tested the resistance of the gel-like membrane at various points to assess precisely how rigid or flexible it was. To their surprise, the researchers observed that the level of rigidity varies significantly along the length of the membrane: One end of the membrane can be up to ten times more rigid than the other.........

Posted by: Sue      Read more         Source


March 27, 2007, 8:57 PM CT

Pulsing Light Silences Overactive Neurons

Pulsing Light Silences Overactive Neurons
Researchers at the MIT Media Lab have invented a way to reversibly silence brain cells using pulses of yellow light, offering the prospect of controlling the haywire neuron activity that occurs in diseases such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.

Such diseases often must be treated by removing neurons that fire incorrectly. The new MIT research could lead to the development of optical brain prosthetics to control neurons, eliminating the need for irreversible surgery.

"In the future, controlling the activity patterns of neurons may enable very specific therapys for neurological and psychiatric diseases, with few or no side effects," said Edward Boyden, assistant professor in the Program in Media Arts and Sciences and leader of the Media Lab's new Neuroengineering and Neuromedia Group.

Boyden and Media Lab research affiliate Xue Han published their results in the March 21 issue of the online journal Public Library of Science ONE (PLOS One).

The work takes advantage of a gene called halorhodopsin found in a bacterium that grows in extremely salty water, such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah. In the bacterium, Natronomas pharaonis, the gene codes for a protein that serves as a light-activated chloride pump, which helps the bacterium make energy.........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source



Older Blog Entries   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43  

Did you know?
Scientists at Yale have brought to light a mechanism that regulates the way an internal organelle, the Golgi apparatus, duplicates as cells prepare to divide, according to a report in Science Express.Graham Warren, professor of cell biology, and colleagues at Yale study Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes Sleeping Sickness. Like a number of parasites, it is exceptionally streamlined and has only one of each internal organelle, making it ideal for studying processes of more complex organisms that have a number of copies in each cell.

Medicineworld.org: Archives of research news blog

Acute bacterial meningitis| Alzheimer's disease| Carpal tunnel syndrome| Cerebral aneurysms| Cerebral palsy| Chronic fatigue syndrome| Cluster headache| Dementia| Epilepsy seizure disorders| Febrile seizures| Guillain barre syndrome| Head injury| Hydrocephalus| Neurology| Insomnia| Low backache| Mental retardation| Migraine headaches| Multiple sclerosis| Myasthenia gravis| Neurological manifestations of aids| Parkinsonism parkinson's disease| Personality disorders| Sleep disorders insomnia| Syncope| Trigeminal neuralgia| Vertigo|

Copyright statement
The contents of this web page are protected. Legal action may follow for reproduction of materials without permission.