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April 6, 2008, 8:21 PM CT

Acetaminophen increases muscle mass

Acetaminophen increases muscle mass
Taking daily recommended dosages of ibuprofen and acetaminophen caused a substantially greater increase over placebo in the amount of quadriceps muscle mass and muscle strength gained during three months of regular weight lifting, in a study by physiologists at the Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University.

Dr. Chad Carroll, a postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Todd Trappe, reported study results at Experimental Biology 2008 in San Diego on April 6. His presentation was part of the scientific program of the American Physiological Society (APS).

Thirty-six men and women, between 60 and 78 years of age (average age 65), were randomly assigned to daily dosages of either ibuprofen (such as that in Advil), acetaminophen (such as that in Tylenol), or a placebo. The dosages were identical to those recommended by the manufacturers and were selected to most closely mimic what chronic users of these medicines were likely to be taking. Neither the volunteers nor the researchers knew who was receiving which therapy until the end of the study.

All subjects participated in three months of weight training, 15-20 minute sessions conducted in the Human Performance Laboratory three times per week. The scientists knew from their own and other studies that training at this intensity and for this time period would significantly increase muscle mass and strength. They expected the placebo group to show such increases, as its members did, but they were surprised to find that the groups using either ibuprofen or acetaminophen did even better. An earlier study from the laboratory, measuring muscle metabolism (or more precisely, muscle protein synthesis, the mechanism through which new protein is added to muscle), had looked at changes over a 24 hour period. This acute study observed that both ibuprofen and acetaminophen had a negative impact, by blocking a specific enzyme cyclooxygenase, usually referred to as COX.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


April 1, 2008, 8:34 PM CT

Bacteria in the digestive system and obesity

Bacteria in the digestive system and obesity
Obesity is more than a cosmetic concern because it increases a persons risk for developing high blood pressure, diabetes and a number of other serious health problems. Its well understood that consuming more calories than you expend through exercise and daily activities causes weight gain. But with about one in every three American adults now considered obese, scientists are attempting to identify additional factors that affect a persons tendency to gain and retain excess weight. In the recent issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, scientists from Mayo Clinic Arizona and Arizona State University examine the role that bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract play in regulating weight and the development of obesity.

Known as gut microbiota, the trillions of bacteria that populate the human gastrointestinal tract perform a variety of chores. These friendly microbes help extract calories from what we eat, help store these calories for later use, and provide energy and nutrients for the production of new bacteria to continue this work.

As per John DiBaise, M.D., a Mayo Clinic Arizona gastroenterologist and lead author of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings article, several animal studies suggest that gut microbiota are involved in regulating weight and that modifying these bacteria could one day be a therapy option for obesity.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 25, 2008, 10:19 PM CT

Partners can help or hinder attempts at changing diet

Partners can help or hinder attempts at changing diet
For people trying to make a change in their diet, significant others generally play a positive and supportive role, but sometimes respond in negative ways, as per a research studyin the March/April Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior (http://www.jneb.org/).

Led by Judy Paisley, Ph.D., R.D., of Ryerson University, Toronto, the scientists looked at how significant others responded when their partners attempted to make a dietary change for health reasons. "For most pairs, the significant others' emotional and behavioral responses to the dietary change appeared to reflect the general dynamics of the relationship," says Dr. Paisley.

The scientists conducted interviews with 21 people making dietary changesmost in response to a medical diagnosisand with their partners or significant others. "By examining the perspectives of significant others, we hoped to deepen understanding of the social nature of dietary change," Dr. Paisley explains.

The partners' emotional responses varied widely: from co-operation and encouragement to skepticism and anger. In most cases, the significant others described themselves as playing a positive, supportive role. Some facilitated the change by joining in the new diet, or by changing their shopping or cooking habits. Others helped by monitoring the dietary change, finding and sharing information, or providing motivation.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 24, 2008, 7:53 PM CT

Obesity and cancer sreening

Obesity and cancer sreening
A review of cancer screening studies shows that white women who are obese are less likely than healthy weight women to get the recommended screenings for breast and cervical cancer, as per scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hills School of Public Health.

The trend was not seen as consistently among black women; however there were fewer high quality studies that examined black women separately.

Obesity is increasing, and so is the evidence that obesity increases the risk of certain cancers like colorectal cancer and post-menopausal breast cancer, said Sarah S. Cohen, lead author of the article published online today by the American Cancer Society. Its a disturbing trend, then, to see that women who are at increased risk of cancer because of their body size are less likely to be receiving screening tests that can detect cancer early, when it is treatable.

Cohen and her colleagues from the UNC School of Public Healths epidemiology department and the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center evaluated 32 relevant published studies on breast, cervical and colorectal cancers that considered associations between obesity and screening tests recommended for women in the United States.

The most consistent associations reported across all the studies were for cervical cancer screenings, with fewer women getting the recommended screening test (Papanicolaou or Pap tests) as body mass index increased. The studies showed a stronger trend among white women than black women.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


March 18, 2008, 8:29 PM CT

Lack Of Exercise And Chronic Disease

Lack Of Exercise And Chronic Disease
For years, researchers have been proclaiming the benefits of exercise. Studies showing that regular exercise benefits human health have exploded in number, examining a number of health problems ranging from cancer and diabetes to arthritis and pre-mature death.

Now, a University of Missouri researcher has found direct evidence to support the claim of the Centers for Disease Control that a reduction in daily physical activity is an actual cause of a number of of the risk factors for chronic diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The research team also observed that it only takes about two weeks of reduced activity for individuals to start noticing the effects. The study is being reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) this week.

A low level of daily physical activity not only doesnt help your current health status, it could be the reason you got sick in the first place, said Frank Booth, professor of biomedical sciences in the MU College of Veterinary Medicine. Our study looked at what happened when a group of individuals reduced their daily physical activity. Our findings indicated that if there is a lack of normal physical activity, a person greatly increases the chances of developing a chronic disease. Previously, we thought that not exercising just wasnt healthy, but we didnt believe that a lack of activity could cause disease. That assumption was wrong.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 17, 2008, 10:26 PM CT

Neighborhoods Play Key Role In How Much People Exercise

Neighborhoods Play Key Role In How Much People Exercise
The neighborhoods people live in can help inspire - or discourage - their residents to exercise and keep physically active, new research suggests.

Residents of neighborhoods with higher levels of poverty, lower education, and more female-headed families are less likely than others to exercise, as per the study.

It's not simply that poorer people are less likely to exercise, scientists say. In fact, the study, which was done in Chicago, observed that a person's individual income wasn't as important as the neighborhood he or she lived in for determining exercise levels.

"We can't encourage people to exercise more without looking at the neighborhood environment in which they live," said Christopher Browning, co-author of the study and associate professor of sociology at Ohio State University.

"Some people may have the personal resources and desire to exercise, but don't live in a neighborhood in which they feel comfortable to go outside for activities".

The study observed that neighborhood context was more important for women than for men in determining how much they exercised.

The findings also showed that levels of trust among neighbors, perceived violence in the community, and beliefs that neighbors help each other, all contributed to how much people exercised in a specific community.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 9, 2008, 4:41 PM CT

North American diet is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids

North American diet is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids
New research from the Child & Family Research Institute shows the typical North American diet of eating lots of meat and not much fish is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and this may pose a risk to infant neurological development. Omega-3 fatty acids are unsaturated fats found in some fish such as salmon and herring and in smaller amounts in eggs and chicken. This discovery is an important step towards developing dietary fat guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Current dietary recommendations evolved from the 1950s emphasis on reducing saturated fat intake to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The study is published March 7th, 2008 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Omega 3 fatty acids are important for the babys developing eyes and brain, says Dr. Sheila Innis, the studys principal investigator, head of the nutrition and metabolism program at the Child & Family Research Institute at BC Childrens Hospital, and professor, department of pediatrics, University of British Columbia.

During pregnancy and breastfeeding, fat consumed by the mum is transferred to the developing baby and breastfed infant, and this fat is important for the babys developing organs. Our next task is to find out why the typical North American diet puts mothers at risk. Then we can develop dietary recommendations to help women consume a nutritious diet that promotes optimal health for mums and babies.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 4, 2008, 5:28 PM CT

Cholesterol-lowering power of dietitian visits

Cholesterol-lowering power of dietitian visits
Worried about your cholesterol? You may want to schedule a few appointments with a registered dietitian, to get some sound advice about how to shape up your eating habits, as per a new national study led by University of Michigan Health System researchers.

Not only are you likely to lower your cholesterol levels, you may be able to avoid having to take cholesterol medication, or having to increase your dose if youre already taking one. And youll probably lose weight in the process, which also helps your heart.

The new results, reported in the recent issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, are based on data from 377 patients with high cholesterol who were counseled by 52 registered dietitians at 24 sites in 11 states.

In the group of 175 patients who started the study with triglycerides less than 400 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL), and who had their cholesterol measured before they changed or added medication, 44.6 percent either reduced their levels of bad cholesterol by at least 15 percent, or reached their cholesterol goal.

The results reflect progress in approximately eight months, after three or more appointments with a dietitian. But the results add further evidence that medical nutrition treatment, as it is called, can make a big difference in a patients life.........

Posted by: Scott      Read more         Source


March 3, 2008, 8:45 PM CT

Testosterone Could Guard Against Eating Disorders

Testosterone Could Guard Against Eating Disorders
Testosterone appears to protect people against eating disorders, providing further evidence that biological factors - and not just social influences - are associated with anorexia and bulimia, as per new research findings at Michigan State University.

An ongoing, six-year study of 538 sets of twins in Michigan indicates that females who were in the womb with male twins have lower risk for eating disorder symptoms than females who were in the womb with female twins. Prior animal research has shown that females in the womb with males are exposed to higher levels of testosterone.

The new findings - from a team of MSU psychology scientists - are reported in the recent issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, out today.

"From these findings, it appears that testosterone exposure could have a protective effect against the development of disordered eating," said project researcher Kelly Klump, MSU associate professor of psychology and president of the Academy for Eating Disorders.

As per the academy, 10 percent or more of late adolescent and adult women report symptoms of eating disorders at any given time.

Klump said scientists have known for years that women are more affected by eating disorders than men and that "some of that is due to social influences such as beauty ideals around thinness for women that we don't have for men".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 3, 2008, 8:41 PM CT

Restricting Kids' Video Time Reduces Obesity

Restricting Kids' Video Time Reduces Obesity
Entrenched sedentary behavior such as watching television and playing computer video games has been the bane for years of parents of overweight children and physicians trying to help those children lose pounds.

There has been little scientifically based research on the effect of limiting those activities, however.

University at Buffalo scientists now have shown in a randomized trial that by using a device that automatically restricted video-viewing time, parents reduced their children's video time by an average of 17.5 hours a week and lowered their body-mass index (BMI) significantly by the end of the 2-year study.

In contrast, children in the control group, whose video time was monitored, but not restricted, reduced their viewing time by only 5 hours per week.

Results of the study appear in the current issue (March 2008) of the Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine.

"Our controlled experiment provided a test of whether reducing access to television and computer time led to a reduction in BMI," said Leonard Epstein, UB Distinguished Professor in the departments of Pediatrics, Health Behavior and Social and Preventive Medicine and first author on the study.

"Results showed that watching television and playing computer games can lead to obesity by reducing the amount of time that children are physically active, or by increasing the amount of food they consume as they as engaged in these sedentary behaviors".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source



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Did you know?
Exercise can't stop the aging process, but experts at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston say that for the elderly, whether it's weight training, walking, swimming or biking, 30 minutes of exercise three to five times a week is a good prescription for aging."It's never too late to start exercising," said Dr. Robert Roush, an associate professor of medicine-geriatrics at BCM. "Being physically active and exercising regularly can help prevent or delay some diseases and disabilities as people age.".

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