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December 28, 2011, 7:02 PM CT

Read infant acetaminophen labels carefully

Read infant acetaminophen labels carefully
Acetaminophen is one of the most usually used pain and fever relievers for infants and children and is safe and effective when used as directed. However, with recent dosing changes to liquid acetaminophen products for infants, the FDA last week issued a press release urging parents to know the concentration and read the label as the new, less concentrated form of the popular pain reliever arrives on store shelves.

Over the past 12 months, several manufacturers of infant's liquid acetaminophen products, such as PediaCare� and Little Remedies�, voluntarily converted to a single concentration of liquid acetaminophen and added additional product enhancements, including age-appropriate dosing devices. While the new 160 mg per 5 mL concentration is now arriving in drugstores, much of the older, more concentrated 80 mg per 1 mL or 80 mg per 0.8 mL versions may still be in people's medicine cabinets as well as on store shelves.

To help explain and illustrate the changes to infants and children's acetaminophen products, Dr. Jim Sears, pediatrician and co-host of The Doctors, teamed up with PediaCare� and Little Remedies� to create a video explaining the new, smart product changes along with a demonstration of the new special dosing mechanisms. Infant products will now contain a special dosing syringe and flow restrictors on the bottles; children's products, for ages 2 to 11 years, will have the bottles with flow restrictors, and continue to contain dosing cups. Both infant and children's formulations will continue to have weight-based instructions on the package, as well.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


August 4, 2011, 8:10 AM CT

Mold exposure during infancy increases asthma risk

Mold exposure during infancy increases asthma risk
Infants who live in "moldy" homes are three times more likely to develop asthma by age 7�an age that children can be accurately diagnosed with the condition.

Study results are reported in the recent issue of Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, the scientific journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI).

"Early life exposure to mold seems to play a critical role in childhood asthma development," says Tiina Reponen, PhD, lead study author and University of Cincinnati (UC) professor of environmental health. "Genetic factors are also important to consider in asthma risk, since infants whose parents have an allergy or asthma are at the greatest risk of developing asthma."

UC and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center scientists analyzed seven years of comprehensive data for 176 children to evaluate the effects of mold exposure in early life.

The children were part of the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS), a long-term population-based study that included more than 700 children from the Greater Cincinnati area. CCAAPS looked at the effects of environmental particles on childhood respiratory health and allergy development. Participants were identified during infancy as at high risk to develop allergies based on family medical history.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


June 13, 2011, 7:44 AM CT

Routine screening for autism not needed

Routine screening for autism not needed
Proposals recommending routine screening of all children for autism gets a thumbs down from scientists at McMaster University.

In a study in the online edition of the journal Pediatrics, the scientists say there is "not enough sound evidence to support the implementation of a routine population-based screening program for autism".

Not only are there no good screening tools or effective therapys but there is no evidence yet that routine screening does more good than harm, said Dr. Jan Willem Gorter, a researcher in McMaster's CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research and associate professor of pediatrics.

Contrary to the McMaster researchers' findings, the American Academy of Pediatrics recently recommended that screening for autism be incorporated into routine practice, such as a child's regular doctor check-up, regardless of whether a concern has been raised by the parents.

Autism, or the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), is a group of serious neurodevelopmental disorder with major, life-altering implications. Its symptoms include differences and disabilities in a number of areas, including social, communication skills, fine and gross motor skills, and sometimes intellectual skills.

During the past three decades, the prevalence of autism has risen dramatically to 11 cases per 1,000 school-aged children from 0.8 cases per 1,000. Reasons for this increase vary: improved detection, changes in diagnosing the disorder or an actual increase. The disorder is more common in males with a 4:1 male-to-female ratio.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 31, 2011, 6:56 AM CT

Sleep during adolescence

Sleep during adolescence
Eventhough adolescents need just as much sleep as younger children, sleep times decrease over the course of development, leaving a number of teens chronically sleep-deprived. Studies have consistently indicated that insufficient sleep can have a negative effect on a number of aspects of adolescents' lives, leading to mood disturbances, poorer physical health, and academic difficulties. But few studies have examined how sleep affects the ways adolescents function on a daily basis or how the effects of sleep change over time.

The Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) will host a symposium during its Biennial Meeting at which scientists will consider the effects of sleep on adolescents. All of the papers that will be presented look at day-to-day variation in adolescents' sleep by using daily diaries, and consider how sleep patterns are related not only to concurrent well-being but also to outcomes later in development.

Among the questions that will be addressed:
  • How do nightly variations in teenagers' sleep affect their experiences the following day? In turn, do daily experiences one day affect sleep the next night?
  • What are the delayed effects of sleep (or lack of sleep)? For example, does insufficient sleep in one year lead to problems in later years?........

    Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 31, 2011, 6:55 AM CT

Migraine headaches and a common heart defect

Migraine headaches and a common heart defect
Cincinnati, OH, March 31, 2011 -- Roughly 15% of children suffer from migraines, and approximately one-third of these affected children have migraines with aura, a collection of symptoms that can include weakness, blind spots, and even hallucinations. Eventhough the causes of migraines are unclear, a newly released study soon to be published in The Journal of Pediatrics suggests a correlation between migraine headaches in children and a heart defect called patent foramen ovale, which affects 25% of people in the U.S.

Dr. Rachel McCandless and his colleagues from the Primary Children's Medical Center and the University of Utah studied children 6-18 years old who were diagnosed with migraines between 2008 and 2009. The 109 children enrolled in the study were treated at the Primary Children's Medical Center, which serves kids from Utah, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Colorado, and parts of Wyoming.

The scientists took two-dimensional echocardiograms of each child's heart, looking for a patent foramen ovale (PFO), a common defect in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. Eventhough a PFO is not necessarily dangerous, it can allow unfiltered blood to bypass the lungs and circulate throughout the body. As Dr. McCandless explains, "Some adult studies have suggested a link between having a PFO and migraine headaches".........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


March 25, 2011, 7:10 AM CT

Psychiatric symptoms in children with epilepsy

Psychiatric symptoms in children with epilepsy
A newly published report reveals that children with epilepsy are more likely to have psychiatric symptoms, with gender a determining factor in their development. Findings showed that girls had more emotional problems, while boys had more hyperactivity/inattention problems and issues regarding peer relationships. Details of this study in Norwegian children are now available online in Epilepsia, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International League Against Epilepsy.

Prior studies have shown that children with epilepsy are at increased risk of developing behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In a 2003 population-based study, psychiatric disorders were reported in 37% of children with epilepsy, while children with diabetes and those in the healthy control group were much lower at 11% and 9%, respectively (Davies et al., 2003). Medical evidence, however, has not clearly established when children or teens with epilepsy appears to be vulnerable to developing psychiatric issues, or how gender influences psychopathology in epilepsy.

The current study used data collected by the Norwegian Health Services Research Centre in a 2002 health profile questionnaire. For children in the 8-13 years of age group, there were 14,699 (response rate of 78%) parents who completed the questionnaire which included questions on topics such as sociodemographic conditions, physical and mental health, and psychosocial conditions. To assess psychiatric symptoms, scientists used the parent report of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) which included questions covering four problem domains�emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention, and peer problems�and prosocial behavior. The SDQ scores were classified as normal, borderline, or abnormal.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


March 15, 2011, 7:43 AM CT

Teens and young adults with cancer

Teens and young adults with cancer
JAYAO, launching in Spring 2011, will be the central forum for clinical, research, and professional specialties focusing on the rapidly emerging field of AYA oncology.

Credit: © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert Inc., publishers

Adolescents and young adults are neither children nor adults and those affected by cancer require targeted care that crosses the boundaries between pediatric and adult oncology, as per several pioneers in this still-developing field of adolescent and young adult oncology. An illuminating roundtable discussion by these experts would be reported in the premier issue of Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology, a multidisciplinary peer-evaluated publication of Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. (www.liebertpub.com). The Roundtable has been published ahead of the print issue and is available at www.liebertpub.com/JAYAO. The full issue will launch in April 2011.

"AYA cancer presents the medical community with several unique problems. First, it requires true collaboration between pediatric and medical oncologists as the age range crosses both disciplines. Next, our AYA cancer patients not only have cancer but are also often dealing with ongoing developmental and psychosocial issues at the same time; as such, we must be aware of how a cancer diagnosis interferes with their normal development. The Roundtable discussion helps put AYA cancer in perspective for those who have still not considered the 15-39 year old cancer patient as a distinct and relevant patient group," as per Editor-in-Chief Leonard S. Sender, MD, of the University of California, Irvine and CHOC Children's Hospital.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


March 15, 2011, 7:32 AM CT

Parental monitoring of opposite-gender

Parental monitoring of opposite-gender
Young adults whose parents monitor their social interactions appears to be less likely to display impulsive behavior traits and to have alcohol-related problems, a newly released study suggests. The level of monitoring is associated with parenting style, and the link is stronger with the parent of the opposite gender.

This study is one of the first to explore the link between parenting style and parental monitoring, as well as to explore the monitoring style of each parent individually, says Julie A. Patock-Peckham, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience at Baylor University and one of the study authors.

"While there's a plethora of research showing that low parental monitoring contributes to risky behavior, very few scientists have examined the effects of parental monitoring separated out by mothers and fathers," she says. "It's normally measured just with the word 'parent.'".

The study involved 581 college students from the Missouri University of Science and Technology and San Diego State University. Participating students completed a questionnaire that addressed the parenting styles of both their mothers and fathers, perceptions of mothers' and fathers' knowledge of their friendships and social plans, and questions about their own impulsiveness and alcohol-related problems.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 24, 2011, 7:58 AM CT

Steroids to treat asthma: How safe are they?

Steroids to treat asthma: How safe are they?
Children experiencing an asthma attack who are treated with a short burst of oral steroids may have a transient depression of immune response as per a newly released study led by Universit� de Montr�al. These findings, published in this month's issue of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonology, have implications for asthmatic children who have flare-ups and who appears to be exposed to new contagious diseases.

"There is no question that the administration of corticosteroids reduces the risk and duration of hospital admission in children with acute asthma remain the most effective therapy for moderate and severe asthma exacerbations," says first author Francine M. Ducharme, a Universit� de Montr�al professor and paediatrician and researcher at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center. "However, the safety profile of these medications continues to raise concerns among parents and physicians. New concerns over their possible impact on the immune system stem from rare reports linking or severe chickenpox infections linked with corticosteroid administration".



Reduced immune response to new triggers


Ducharme and his colleagues reviewed the immune response of children aged 3 to 17 years, who had arrived at the emergency department (ED) with an asthma attack. All subjects were given immune triggers (known as antigens) and the immune response between those who received corticosteroids versus those who did not were compared.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 22, 2011, 7:33 AM CT

Using EEGs to diagnose autism

Using EEGs to diagnose autism
A computational physicist and a cognitive neuroscientist at Children's Hospital Boston have come up with the beginnings of a noninvasive test to evaluate an infant's autism risk. It combines the standard electroencephalogram (EEG), which records electrical activity in the brain, with machine-learning algorithms. In a pilot study, their system had 80 percent accuracy in distinguishing between 9-month-old infants known to be at high risk for autism from controls of the same age.

Eventhough this work, published February 22 in the online open-access journal BMC Medicine, requires validation and refinement, it suggests a safe, practical way of identifying infants at high risk for developing autism by capturing very early differences in brain organization and function. This would allow parents to begin behavioral interventions one to two years before autism can be diagnosed through traditional behavioral testing.

"Electrical activity produced by the brain has a lot more information than we realized," says William Bosl, PhD, a neuroinformatics researcher in the Children's Hospital Informatics Program. "Computer algorithms can pick out patterns in those squiggly lines that the eye can't see".

Bosl, Charles A. Nelson, PhD, Research Director of the Developmental Medicine Center at Children's, and his colleagues recorded resting EEG signals from 79 babies 6 to 24 months of age participating in a larger study aimed at finding very early risk markers of autism. Forty-six infants had an older sibling with a confirmed diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD); the other 33 had no family history of ASDs.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 21, 2011, 7:43 AM CT

Callous-unemotional traits

Callous-unemotional traits
Nathalie Fontaine is a researcher at Indiana University.

Credit: Indiana University

Research presented this week at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science highlights the importance of callous-unemotional traits (CU) in identifying children at risk of antisocial behavior and other adjustment problems.

The research, presented by Indiana University Bloomington faculty member Nathalie M.G. Fontaine, finds that the emergence of CU traits in childhood is in most cases influenced by genetic factors, particularly in boys. However, environmental factors appear to be more significant for the small number of girls who exhibit high levels of CU traits.

In this first longitudinal study employing a group-based analysis to examine the correlation between childhood trajectories of CU traits and conduct problems, scientists observed that high levels of both CU traits and conduct problems were linked to negative child and family factors at age 4 and with behavioral problems at age 12.

CU traits, such as a lack of emotion and a lack of empathy or guilt, are exhibited by a small number of children and are linked to persistent conduct problems, which are experienced by 5 percent to 10 percent of children.

"The children with high levels of both CU traits and conduct problems between ages 7 to 12 were likely to present negative predictors and outcomes, including hyperactivity problems and living in a chaotic home environment," said Fontaine, assistant professor of criminal justice in the College of Arts and Sciences at Indiana University Bloomington. "If we could identify those children early enough, we could help them as well as their families."........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 21, 2011, 7:25 AM CT

Careful cleaning of children's skin wounds key to healing

Careful cleaning of children's skin wounds key to healing
When it comes to curing skin infected with the antibiotic-resistant bacterium MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), timely and proper wound cleaning and draining appears to be more important than the choice of antibiotic, as per a new Johns Hopkins Children's Center study. The work is reported in the recent issue of Pediatrics

Scientists originally set out to compare the efficacy of two antibiotics usually used to treat staph skin infections, randomly giving 191 children either cephalexin, a classic anti-staph antibiotic known to work against the most common strains of the bacterium but not MRSA, or clindamycin, known to work better against the resistant strains. Much to the researchers' surprise, they said, drug choice didn't matter: 95 percent of the children in the study recovered completely within a week, regardless of which antibiotic they got.

The finding led the research team to conclude that proper wound care, not antibiotics, may have been the key to healing.

"The good news is that no matter which antibiotic we gave, nearly all skin infections cleared up fully within a week," says study lead investigator Aaron Chen, M.D., an emergency doctor at Hopkins Children's. "The better news might be that good low-tech wound care, cleaning, draining and keeping the infected area clean, is what truly makes the difference between rapid healing and persistent infection".........

Posted by: George      Read more         Source


February 14, 2011, 7:16 AM CT

Children with ADHD and substance abuse

Children with ADHD and substance abuse
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are two to three times more likely than children without the disorder to develop serious substance abuse problems in adolescence and adulthood, as per a research studyby UCLA psychology experts and his colleagues at the University of South Carolina.

"This greater risk for children with ADHD applies to boys and girls, it applies across race and ethnicity � the findings were very consistent," said Steve S. Lee, a UCLA assistant professor of psychology and main author of the study. "The greater risk for developing significant substance problems in adolescence and adulthood applies across substances, including nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and other drugs." .

Lee and colleagues analyzed 27 long-term studies that followed approximately 4,100 children with ADHD and 6,800 children without the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood � in some cases for more than 10 years. These carefully designed, rigorous and lengthy studies, Lee said, are the "gold standard" in the field.

The research by Lee and colleagues, the first large-scale comprehensive analysis on this issue, is published online this week in the journal Clinical Psychology Review and will appear in a print edition later this year.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 2, 2011, 7:40 AM CT

Wide geographic disparities in children's health care

Wide geographic disparities in children's health care
Two years after the reauthorization and expansion of the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), a new Commonwealth Fund state-by-state scorecard evaluating how the health care system is working for children finds that federal and state action on behalf of children has helped preserve, and even expand, health coverage for this group, despite the severe recession. Yet wide differences persist among states when it comes to health insurance coverage, affordability of health care for families, children's receipt of preventive care and therapy, and the opportunity for children to lead healthy lives. Children living in the five top-ranked states�Iowa, Massachusetts, Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire�are more likely to be insured and to receive recommended medical and dental check-ups than children living in poorer-performing states like Florida, Texas, Arizona, Mississippi, or Nevada.

The report finds good evidence for the value of federal and state policies aimed at improving rates of health insurance coverage. Early expansions of Medicaid at the start of the decade, Medicaid stabilization funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (the stimulus bill), and the expansion and reauthorization of CHIP in February 2009 allowed states to continue to provide and, in some cases, expand health insurance for children during the economic downturn. While coverage rates for parents have declined in 41 states over the past decade, children have fared dramatically better, with rates increasing in 35 states over the same period.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


February 1, 2011, 7:48 AM CT

Tonsillectomy linked to excess weight gain

Tonsillectomy linked to excess weight gain
Alexandria, VA � Tonsillectomy is the most common major surgical procedure performed in children. Children who undergo the surgical removal of their tonsils (tonsillectomy), with or without the removal of their adenoids (adenoidectomy), are at increased risk for becoming overweight after surgery, as per new research reported in the February 2011 issue of Otolaryngology � Head and Neck Surgery

Pediatric obesity has increased overwhelmingly over the last 20 years, with recent data suggesting that as a number of as 33 percent of American children are overweight and 17 percent obese. Obese children are at increased risk of becoming obese adults, thus making them susceptible to cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

The study sample included 795 children aged 0 to 18 years old, described as normal weight or overweight and who had tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy surgery. In 47.7 percent of patients, the primary reason for surgery was sleep-disordered breathing. The first group included three studies involving 127 children, whose body mass index (BMI) increased by 5.5-8.2%. The second group included three studies involving 419 patients, in whom the standardized weight scores increased in 46-100% patients. The third group included three studies with 249 patients, in whom 50 � 75% of the patients gained weight after adenoidectomy. Each study was designed with different definitions of overweight and a range of follow-up periods.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


January 28, 2011, 7:23 AM CT

Stem cells to repair a child's heart

Stem cells to repair a child's heart
Visionaries in the field of cardiac therapeutics have long looked to the future when a damaged heart could be rebuilt or repaired by using one's own heart cells. A study reported in the recent issue of Circulation, a scientific journal of the American Heart Association, shows that heart stem cells from children with congenital heart disease were able to rebuild the damaged heart in the laboratory.

Sunjay Kaushal, MD, PhD, surgeon in the Division of Cardiovascular Thoracic Surgery at Children's Memorial Hospital and assistant professor of surgery at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, who headed the study, believes these results show great promise for the growing number of children with congenital heart problems. With this potential treatment option these children may avoid the need for a heart transplant.

"Due to the advances in surgical and medical therapies, a number of children born with cardiomyopathy or other congenital heart defects are living longer but may eventually succumb to heart failure," said Kaushal. "This project has generated important pre-clinical laboratory data showing that we appears to be able to use the patient's own heart stem cells to rebuild their hearts, allowing these children to potentially live longer and have more productive lives." .........

Posted by: Daniel      Read more         Source


January 25, 2011, 8:00 AM CT

Fear Is Quickly Learned During Infancy

Fear Is Quickly Learned During Infancy
There's a reason why Hollywood makes movies like Arachnophobia and Snakes on a Plane: Most people are afraid of spiders and snakes. A new paper published in Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, reviews research with infants and toddlers and finds that we aren't born afraid of spiders and snakes, but we can learn these fears very quickly.

One theory about why we fear spiders and snakes is because so a number of are poisonous; natural selection may have favored people who stayed away from these dangerous critters. Indeed, several studies have observed that it's easier for both humans and monkeys to learn to fear evolutionarily threatening things than non-threatening things. For example, research by Arne Ohman at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, you can teach people to associate an electric shock with either photos of snakes and spiders or photos of flowers and mushrooms-but the effect lasts a lot longer with the snakes and spiders. Similarly, Susan Mineka's research (from Northwestern University) shows that monkeys that are raised in the lab aren't afraid of snakes, but they'll learn to fear snakes much more readily than flowers or rabbits.

The authors of the Current Directions in Psychological Science paper have studied how infants and toddlers react to scary objects. In one set of experiments, they showed infants as young as 7 months old two videos side by side-one of a snake and one of something non-threatening, such as an elephant. At the same time, the scientists played either a fearful voice or a happy voice. The babies spent more time looking at the snake videos when listening to the fearful voices, but showed no signs of fear themselves.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


January 16, 2011, 10:19 PM CT

Is 'breast only' for first 6 months best?

Is 'breast only' for first 6 months best?
Current guidance advising mothers in the UK to exclusively breast feed for the first six months of their baby's life is being questioned by child health experts on bmj.com today.

The authors, led by Dr Mary Fewtrell, a consultant paediatrician at the UCL Institute of Child Health in London, have evaluated the evidence behind the current guidance and say the time is right to reappraise this recommendation.

The scientists stress that while they fully back exclusive breast feeding early in life, they are concerned that exclusively doing so for six months and not introducing other foods may not always be in the child's best interests.

In 2001 the World Health Organisation (WHO) made its global recommendation that infants should be exclusively breast fed for the first six months. A number of western countries did not follow this recommendation but in 2003 the UK health minister announced that the UK would comply.

Fewtrell and his colleagues support six months exclusive breast feeding in less developed countries where access to clean water and safe weaning foods is limited and there is a high risk of infant death and illness. However they have reservations about whether the WHO's guidance about when to introduce other foods is right for the UK.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source


January 4, 2011, 6:36 AM CT

Kids frequently exposed to imaging procedures

Kids frequently exposed to imaging procedures
The rapid growth in use of medical diagnostic imaging, such as Computerized axial tomography scans, has led to widespread concern about radiation exposure in adults and the potential for future cancer risk in patients undergoing these tests.

A newly released study led by University of Michigan scientists now shows that kids also frequently receive these types of imaging procedures during their routine clinical care, and highlights the importance of initiatives to ensure that those tests being performed are necessary and use the lowest possible doses of radiation.

"Our findings indicate that more awareness about the frequent use of these tests appears to be needed among care providers, hospitals and parents," says Adam L. Dorfman, M.D., clinical assistant professor of pediatrics and communicable diseases and of radiology at the U-M Medical School. "Imaging tests are a critical component of good medical care, but the high number of tests raises questions about whether we are being judicious in our use of the technology".

The results of this study were published online today in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.

Despite widespread discussions about the health hazards of environmental exposures in children, radiation exposure from the frequent use of imaging procedures has received less attention, possibly due to limited contemporary data in younger patients. As such, this study identified 355,088 children under the age of 18 in five large U.S. health care markets to track how often these imaging procedures are used. The study observed that over 400,000 imaging procedures were performed in just 3 years, with 42.5% of the children receiving at least one of these procedures and a number of undergoing multiple tests. The types of tests the researchers considered included everything from routine x-rays that use very low doses of radiation to more advanced tests, like Computerized axial tomography scans, that require doses that are greater. Based on these data, the average child in this study population would be expected to receive approximately 7 imaging procedures utilizing radiation by age 18.........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


January 3, 2011, 6:20 AM CT

Tonsillectomy in children

Tonsillectomy in children
A multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline, "Tonsillectomy in Children" would be reported in the recent issue of Otolaryngology�Head and Neck Surgery (watch for a new cover and publisher in that issue of the journal). The new guideline provides evidence-based recommendations on the pre-, intra-, and postoperative care and management of children aged 1 to 18 years under consideration for tonsillectomy. Additionally, this guideline is intended for all clinicians in any setting who care for these patients. This guideline also addresses practice variation in medicine and the significant public health implications of tonsillectomy.

Tonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States, with over 530,000 procedures performed annually in children under 15 years old. Tonsillectomy is defined as a surgical procedure (performed with or without adenoidectomy) that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Depending on the context in which it is used, the term may indicate tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy, particularly in relation to sleep-disordered breathing.

"Over half a million tonsillectomies are done every year in the United States," said Richard M. Rosenfeld, MD, MPH, journal guideline author and consultant. "The tonsillectomy guideline will empower doctors and parents to make the best decisions, resulting in safer surgery and improved quality of life for children who suffer from large or infected tonsils".........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 21, 2010, 6:21 AM CT

Chemotherapy boost survival of older teenage leukemia patients

Chemotherapy  boost survival of older teenage leukemia patients
More effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy and sophisticated patient monitoring helped push cure rates to nearly 88 percent for older adolescents enrolled in a St. Jude Children's Research Hospital acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy protocol and closed the survival gap between older and younger patients battling the most common childhood cancer.

A report online in the December 20 edition of the Journal of Clinical Oncology noted that overall survival jumped 30 percent in the most recent therapy era for ALL patients who were age 15 through 18 when their cancer was found.

The study compared long-term survival of patients treated between 2000 and 2007 in a protocol designed by St. Jude researchers with those enrolled in earlier St. Jude protocols. About 59 percent of older patients treated between 1991 and 1999 were cured, compared with more than 88 percent of children ages 1 through 14 treated during the same period. But overall survival for older patients rose to almost 88 percent between 2000 and 2007, when long-term survival of younger patients soared to about 94 percent. Nationally, about 61 percent of ALL patients age 15 to 19 treated between 2000 and 2004 were still alive five years later.

Not only did more patients in the recent therapy era survive, but Ching-Hon Pui, M.D., chair of the St. Jude Department of Oncology and the paper's main author, said they are also less likely to suffer serious late therapy effects, including second cancers and infertility. That is because the regimen, known as Total XV, eliminated or dramatically reduced reliance on drugs linked to those side effects.........

Posted by: Janet      Read more         Source


December 16, 2010, 7:24 AM CT

Caffeine negatively affects children

Caffeine negatively affects children
Caffeine consumption in children is often blamed for sleep problems and bedwetting. Information on childhood caffeine consumption is limited, and a number of parents may not know the amount or effects of their child's caffeine consumption. As per a research findings published in The Journal of Pediatrics, scientists observed that 75% of children surveyed consumed caffeine on a daily basis, and the more caffeine the children consumed, the less they slept.

Dr. William Warzak and his colleagues from the University of Nebraska Medical Center surveyed the parents of over 200 children 5 to 12 years old during routine clinical visits at an urban pediatric clinic. Parents were asked to report the types and amounts of snacks and beverages their child consumed on a daily basis.

As per Dr. Warzak, "Some children as young as 5 years old were consuming the equivalent of a can of soda a day." The authors also noticed that the older children drank more caffeinated beverages. "Children between the ages of 8 and 12 years consumed an average of 109 mg a day," Dr. Warzak explains, "the equivalent of almost 3 12-ounce cans of soda." .

Scientists found, however, that caffeine was not associated with bedwetting in these children. "Contrary to popular belief," Dr. Evans, coauthor and statistician, clarifies, "children were not more likely to wet the bed if they consumed caffeine, despite the fact that caffeine is a diuretic." .........

Posted by: JoAnn      Read more         Source


December 15, 2010, 7:10 AM CT

Fighting flu in newborns begins in pregnancy

Fighting flu in newborns begins in pregnancy
A three-year study by Yale School of Medicine scientists has observed that vaccinating pregnant women against influenza is over 90 percent effective in preventing their infants from being hospitalized with influenza in the first six months of life. Reported in the December 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, the study builds on preliminary data the research team presented last year at the Infectious Disease Society of America in Philadelphia.

Influenza is a major cause of serious respiratory disease in pregnant women and of hospitalization in infants. Eventhough the flu vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women and children, no vaccine is approved for infants under six months of age. Preventive strategies for this age group include general infection control and vaccination of those coming in close contact with them.

First author Isaac Benowitz, a Yale medical student, senior author Marietta Vazquez, M.D., and their colleagues examined the effectiveness of flu vaccine during pregnancy in preventing hospitalization in infants. The study enrolled infants hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital due to influenza and a similar group of infants without influenza. The scientists then compared whether each infant's mother had gotten the flu vaccine during pregnancy.........

Posted by: Emily      Read more         Source



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Adolescents who suffer physical injuries are vulnerable to emotional distress in the months following their hospitalization, yet almost 40 percent of hospitalized adolescents interviewed for a new study had no source for the follow-up medical care that could diagnose and treat symptoms of post-traumatic stress. These young trauma survivors are at risk for high levels of post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, as well as high levels of alcohol use, according to research by researchers at the Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center.

Medicineworld.org: Pediatric News Blog

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